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GIFT OF 

Bureau of rail'.vay 
economics 




L I Q H T 



LOCOMOTIVES. 



H. K. PORTER & CO 



PITTSBURGH, PA. 



SIXTH EDITION. 



1889. 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 

[ATTHEWS, NORTHRUP & CO., ART-PRINTING WORKS, 
Office of the "Buffalo Morning Express." 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 

BUILDERS OF LIGHT LOCOMOTIVES. 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 

OFFICE, Corner of Smithfield and Water Streets, in 
Monongahela House Building. 

WORKS, On Allegheny Valley R. R., 49th to 50th Streets. 



BUSINESS ESTABLISHED 1866. 



SMITH & PORTER 1866-1871 

PORTER, BELL & CO 1871-1878 

H. K. PORTER & CO. 1878 



FOR INDEX SEE LAST PAGE. 



LIGHT LOCOMOTIVES. 



Our EXCLUSIVE SPECIALTY is the manufacture of Light Locomotives 
in every variety of size and style, and for any practicable gauge of track, 
to meet the requirements of many kinds of service for which ordinary 
locomotives are not practical or are not economical. 

Our LOCATION in the city of Pittsburgh, Pa., affords us unusual 
advantages in obtaining supplies and shipping locomotives. Our shops 
were built by us, and stocked with tools especially adapted to our busi- 
ness. Our designs and methods of construction are not mere copies on a 
reduced scale from heavy locomotives, but are the results of our experience 
in this specialty for many years. Natural gas is used for forging and 
case-hardening. We use only the best materials. Our shop force is 
well drilled, most of the workmen having been educated in our employ, 
and all of them take pride in the good reputation of the shop. 

OUR DUPLICATE SYSTEM is a most valuable feature, to which we invite 
special attention. By means of original and duplicate drawings and 
records, and of standard gauges and templets, and of special tools and 
machines, each locomotive is made interchangeable with all others of 
the same size and class. This reduces the cost of repairs of our locomo- 
tives to the minimum and saves their owners from any expense for 
patterns or shops. A good engineer is competent to attach duplicate 
parts and usually without losing a trip. We furnish with every locomo- 
tive a LIST OF NAMES OF PARTS, to save mistakes in ordering* supplies. 
Our duplicate system differs in one important item from that of other 
shops. We ahcays keep on hand, independent and ahead of orders, a 
full stock of fitted duplicate parts for our standard designs and sizes,' so 
that orders for repairs are filled immediately upon receipt. This prac- 
tically insures our locomotives against loss of time, although customers 
in foreign countries or at a great distance may find it desirable to order 
with their locomotives a few extra parts most liable to wear or injury. 
Our records show that 90 per cent of orders for supplies are filled from 
fitted stock on hand, 63 per cent being shipped on the day of receipt of 
order, and 27 per cent on the next day, because orders were received too 
near ihe close of business hours. Of the remainder, 5 per cent were 
shipped two days and 5 per cent more than two days after the receipt of 
order. This includes all shipments of supplies except departures from 
standard designs made by customers' instructions, and some parts differ- 
ing with gauge of track which are not kept on hand for unusual gauges. 

QUICK DELIVERY OF LOCOMOTIVES and prompt completion on cr 
before contract time is secured by our system of construction. We can 
usually fill orders for locomotives inside of 60 or 90 days and occasion- 
ally in 30 days. We request correspondents not to ask for earlier 
delivery than necessary, as we have only limited facilities for storing 
engines. 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY OF LOCOMOTIVES is not often to be expected. 
But for a number of years we have endeavored to keep on hand com- 
pleted locomotives of several sizes for wide and for narrow gauge, suitable 
for contractor's use, steel works, logging roads, suburban roads, etc. 
When any of these stock locomotives are sold, whether before or after 
completion, another one is at once put under construction. We do not 
buy or sell second hand locomotives. 

A 1705 4 



S. K. PORTER & CO. 



OUR GUARANTY. 



"We guarantee all our locomotives to be according to specifications ; to 
be of best work and material, accurately constructed to our duplicate 
system ; to be efficient in service and to come up to their hauling capacity 
as given and explained in this catalogue. 

We offer the very best work, of designs adapted to special require- 
ments, accurate, interchangeable, and durable, at short notice and 
reasonable prices. 

Our locomotives are in operation in nearly every State and Territory 
of United States, and in Canada, in the West Indies and Mexico, indifferent 
parts of South America, and in Japan, and we consider them our best 
advertisement, and their owners as our best references. On an average 
over half our orders are from old customers, and most of the rest are 
given from information received or from personal knowledge of the 
efficiency of our engines at work. 



PRICES OF LOCOMOTIVES. 

It is not practicable to name prices in this catalogue. On application 
of customers we will make propositions, with photographs and specifica- 
tions for locomotives guaranteed to do the required work. Such applica- 
tions should state 

1. The gauge of track, length of road, kind of fuel, weight of rail, 
and radius of sharpest curve. 

2. The steepest grade, with its length, for loaded cars to go up (also 
the same for empty cars if they return empty). 

3. The number of cars to be hauled in each train and the weight of 
each car and of its load. 

4. The total amount of freight to be carried one way daily. 

When customers have previously determined on the size and style of 
locomotives they require, we would still request the above information, 
as we may be able to suggest some less expensive and more satisfactory 
design ; and also because we wish in all cases to be convinced ourselves 
that locomotives furnished by us are of such power and design as are 
best adapted to perform the work, and so will be of credit to us, and of 
the utmost benefit to their owners. 



With orders for locomotives it is desirable that the following informa- 
tion be given promptly : 

1. The gauge of track (exact space in the clear between rails); 

2. The kind of fuel ; 

3. The height of the centre of the car couplings above the rail ; 

4. (At later convenience) the lettering for cab and tank. 



PITTSBURGH, PSNNA. 



THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS 

of our LIGHT LOCOMOTIVES include axles, tires, guides, crank-pins, rods, 
links and springs of steel ; valve gear and other working joints, links 
and blocks of case-hardened steel with extra long bearings, with hardened 
steel pins and thimbles ; iron frames solidly forged ; cylinders and all 
cast-iron wearing surfaces of close, hard charcoal mixture of metal ; 
wearing brasses ingot copper and as large a proportion of tin as can be 
worked ; all moveable nuts and bolts case-hardened ; all parts drilled, 
planed, turned and fitted to gauges and templets, and interchangeable ; 
all bolts of U. S. standard thread ; all cocks to standard gas-taps ; all 
material and workmanship of the very best ; painting and finish neat 
and suited to the service throughout. Boiler of homogeneous cast steel 
plates ; lap-welded flues, set with copper ferrules at the fire-box ends ; all 
caulking done with a blunt tool on bevelled edges by the patent concave 
process ; rivets hand riveted by the latest and best patent method ; boiler 
tested before lagging to 180 Ibs. hydraulic pressure, and engine fired up 
and worked by its own steam on friction rollers before shipment. 
Tank of steel plates. 

Special attention is given to secure for all of our locomotives thorough 
fitness in all details for the service required ; also compactness and acces- 
sibility of machinery, and convenience and perfect control of all work- 
ing levers, gauges, etc., by the engineer. 

Our locomotives are furnished with pump and injector (or two 
injectors and no pump), with seamless copper pipe connections ; sand- 
box ; bell (except mine locomotives, motors and some special styles) ; 
safety and relief valves, steam gauge, cab-lamp, cylinder oilers, blow-off, 
heater, blower, gauge, pet, sprinkling, and other cocks ; tool-box and 
cushion ; tools, including two screw-jacks, tallow and oil cans, spanner 
and flat wrenches to fit all bolts and nuts ; monkey-wrench, steel and 
copper hammers ; chisels, pinch-bar, poker, scraper, and torch. 

Headlights, driver or power-brakes, syphon pumps, etc., are extra. 

Unless otherwise agreed, our delivery is free on board cars at our 
shops. We can obtain advantageous freight rates to all accessible points. 
For foreign shipments we are prepared to include in our propositions the 
taking apart of locomotives, protecting from rust, boxing, and prepay- 
ing freight and lighterage charges to the vessel's dock. 



The illustrations and descriptions herein presented comprise only our 
leading styles and sizes ; we have many modifications of these, besides 
other special patterns and designs, and are also ready to prepare other 
designs for peculiar cases, or to build to required specifications. 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



EIGHT-WHEEL PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE, 




( diameter 


11 inches. 
16 inches. 


12 inches. 
16 inches. 


12 inches. 
18 inches. 


13 inches. 
18 inches. 


Cylinders < 

( stroke 


Diameter of driving wheels 


40 inches. 


40 to 44 in. 


44 to 48 in. 


44 to 48 in. 


Diameter of truck wheels 


20 inches. 


18 to 20 in. 


20 to 22 in. 


20 to 22 in. 


Rigid wheel-base of engine 
Total wheel-base of engine 


6 ft. in. 
15 ft. 6 in. 
32 ft. 4 in. 


6 ft. 6 in 
16 ft. 4 in. 
34 ft. 3 in. 


6 ft. 9 in. 
16ft.lOin. 
34 ft. 9 in. 


6 ft. 9 in. 
17 ft. 7 in. 
37 ft. 5 in. 


Wheel-base of engine and tender 


Length over all of engine and tender 


39 ft. 9 in. 


42 ft. 5 in. 


42 ft. 11 in. 


46 ft. 2 in. 


Weight of engine in working order 


34,000 Ib. 
23,000 Ib. 
11,000 Ib. 


37,000 Ib. 
25,000 Ib. 
12,000 Ib. 


39,000 Ib. 
26,000 Ib. 
13,000 Ib. 


44,000 Ib. 
29,500 Ib. 
14,500 Ib. 


Weight on driving wheels 


Weight on four-wheel truck 


Water capacity of tender tank 


1,050 gals. 


1,200 gals. 


1,200 gals. 


1,400 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail 
advised 


30 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


35 Ib. 




Haulingr capacity on a level, 
in tons of 2 OOO Ib 


600 tons. 


650 tons. 


700 tons. 


800 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



The " Eight-wheel " or "American " pattern of locomotive is deservedly 
a favorite for general use on broad-gauge roads throughout the United 
States, and hence has been very largely adopted by narrow-gauge roads. 

We believe, however, that a narrow-gauge engine, or a light engine for 
wide gauge, should be something more than a miniature copy of a full 
size standard-gauge engine, and that the construction necessary on a 
large engine should be simplified on a small engine where it can be done 
advantageously. 

We regard the "Eight-wheel "pattern, especially the smaller sizes, as 
less desirable than some other designs in the following particulars : 

The weight is not distributed to secure the maximum of power, the 
proportion of dead to useful weight being necessarily very large. 

The truck wheels are necessarily of smaller diameter than is advisable 
for high speeds ; or to secure larger truck wheels the boiler is set higher, 
and the centre of weight raised more than is desirable for fast running. 

While we recommend the design illustrated on page 6 in preference to 
the " Eight-wheel " pattern, we wish to meet the views of all customers, 
and are prepared to furnish this style of sizes as specified. 



NOTE. Refer to page 46for explanation of hauling- capacity; 
for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half or 
two-thirds of their full capacity or at a less proportion for 
fast speeds. 

For actual performances see WORKING REPORTS on pages 90 and 91. 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



SIX-WHEEL PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE. 




i diameter .... 


11 inches. 


12 inches. 


12 inches. 


13 inches. 


Cylinders-^ 
i stroke 


16 inches. 


16 inches. 


18 inches. 


18 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


40 inches. 


40 to 44 in. 


44 to 48 in. 


44 to 48 in. 


Diameter of truck wheels 


26 inches. 


26 to 30 in. 


30 inches. 


30 inches. 


Rigid wheel-base of engine 


6 ft. in. 


6 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. 9 in. 


6 ft. 9 in. 


Total wheel-base of engine 


16 ft. 2 in. 


16ft.lOin. 


17 ft. 4 in. 


18 ft. 1 in. 


Wheel-base of engine and tender 


32 ft. 6 in. 


34 ft. 10 in. 


35 ft. 4 in. 


37ft.llin. 


Length over all of engine and tender 


39 ft. in. 


43 ft. 5 in. 


43ft.llin. 


46 ft. 6 in. 


Weight of engine in working order 


33,000 Ib. 


36,000 Ib. 


38,000 Ib. 


43,000 Ib. 


Weight on driving wheels 


25,000 Ib. 


27,000 Ib. 


28,500 Ib. 


32,500 Ib. 


Weight on two- wheel radial-bar truck 


8,000 Ib. 


9,000 Ib. 


9,500 Ib. 


10,500 Ib. 


Water capacity of tender tank . . . 


1,050 gals. 


1,200 gals. 


1,200 gals. 


1,400 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail 










advised 


30 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


35 Ib. 












Hauling capacity on a level, 










In tons of 2.OOO Ib. . 


650 tons. 


700 tons. 


750 tons. 


850 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



The pattern of locomotive illustrated on the opposite page was de- 
signed by us for fast passenger service and long runs on narrow gauge, 
and also for light work on standard gauge, and has proved extremely 
powerful and fast. The special advantages of this pattern over others 
for such service are : 

Economical distribution of weight, securing the greatest proportion of 
useful weight, and consequently the greatest power, as well as ease on 
track. 

The centre of weight is extremely low, securing unusual stability; 
and the pony truck wheels are of large diameter, rendering the engine 
capable of very high speed with perfect safety. 

The unusually long flexible wheel-base secures great ease of motion, 
even on a rough track ; and the short rigid wheel-base and superior 
curving qualities of the truck permit passing sharp curves even at a high 
speed. 

The truck axle and machinery are proportioned to the load to be 
upheld, and better able to endure severe shocks than the smaller axles 
and lighter machinery of the four-wheel truck. At the same time 
simplicity is attained and useless gear avoided. Curves of a 150 feet 
radius, speed of 40 to 60 miles per hour, and runs of 150 to 200 miles 
per day are practicable. 

The same general style, "with smaller drivers, and of sufficient weight 
to utilize them, is very efficient for freight or for mixed traffic, or for 
passenger service on heavy grades, and is by many preferred to the 
"Mogul" style (page 16). 



NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity or at a less proportion for 
fast speeds. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 89 to 91. 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



MEDIUM PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE. 

These engines are designed for passenger or mixed service, for shorter 
runs and slower speed than the patterns shown on pages 4 and 6. 

They will readily pass curves of 125 feet radius, and a speed of 30 to 
40 miles per hour is attainable under favorable conditions. 

The very large proportion of weight on the driving wheels adapts these 
locomotives for steep grades, for heavy loads and for quick stopping and 
starting of trains. In most cases they are practically as efficient as the 
next larger sizes of the styles on pages 4 and 6. 




diameter 


10 inches 


11 inches 


Diameter of driving wheels 


16 inches. 
36 to 40 in 


16 inches. 
40 to 44 in 


Diameter of truck wheels 
Rigid wheel-base of engine * 


24 to 26 in. 
6 ft 6 in 


26 to 28 in. 
6 ft 6 in 


Total wheel-base of engine 
Wheel-bass of engine and tender 


13 ft. 3 in. 
29 ft 6 in 


14 ft. 3 in. 
33 ft 9 in 


Length over all of engine and tender 
Weight of engine in working order 


36 ft. 6 in. 
280001b 


40 ft. in. 
32 000 Ib 


Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on two-wheel radial-bar truck 


24,000 Ib. 
40001b 


26,000 Ib. 
6,000 Ib 


Water capacity of tender tank 
Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 


800 gals. 
30 Ib 


1,050 gals. 
30 Ib. 








Hauling capacity on a level, in tons o1 
2 OOO Ib 


r 
625 tons 


700 tons 









To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, or at a less proportion 
for fast speeds. 



For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 87, 88, 
89 and 144. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED SADDLE-TANK LOCOMOTIVE, WITH 
FRONT TRUCK, 

These engines are well adapted for suburban roads where the grades 
and loads are heavy, and where the run is not long enough to require a 
tender tank. As the weight of the water is used for traction, and there 
is no tender, these engines can haul larger trains than those shown on 
the opposite page. The relative advantage increases with the grade. 

In most cases the " Back-Truck," design described on page 19 or page 
21 is preferable, as it admits more fuel space and more cab room. 

The engines may be run without turning, and are adapted to either 
wide or narrow gauge. 




/T_I- j f diameter 10 inches 


11 inches 


Cylinders -J stroke 16 inches. 


16 inches 


Diameter of driving wheels 33 to 40 in 


36 to 40 in 


Diameter of truck wheels 22 to 26 in. 
Rigid wheel-base 6 ft 6 in 


24 to 26 in. 
6 ft 6 in 


Total wheel-base 13 ft. 3 in. 
Length over all 26 ft. 9 in. 


14 ft, 3 in. 
28 ft. in 


Weight in working order 33.000 Ib. 
Weight on driving wheels 27 000 Ib 


37,000 Ib. 
30 000 Ib 


Weight on two- wheel radial-bar truck 6,000 Ib. 
Water capacity of saddle tank 500 gals 


7,000 Ib. 
600 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 30 Ib 


35 Ib 






Hauling capacity on a level, in tons of 
2,OOO Ib. 675 tons 


800 tons 







To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I, page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, or at a less proportion 
for fast speeds. 



10 



H. K. PORTEE & CO., 



LIGHT PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE, 

These engines are designed for light work on light rails. They will 
pass curves of 75 feet radius ; and are capable of a speed of 25 to 35 
miles per hour. 

We are prepared to build smaller engines of this style. 




r^,-\ ' j 1 diameter . . . 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
18 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
9 ft. in. 
23 ft. in. 
30 ft. in. 
16,000 Ib. 
13,500 Ib. 
2,500 Ib. 
500 gals. 
20 Ib. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
36 inches. 
22 inches. 
5 ft. 9 in. 
10 ft. 9 in. 
25 ft. 6 in. 
32 ft. 6 in. 
20,000 Ib. 
17,000 Ib. 
3,COO Ib. 
500 gals. 
25 Ib. 


Cylinders | gtrok | ; 


Diameter of driving wheels 


Diameter of truck wheels ... 


Rigid whe^l-base of engine 


Total wheel-base of engine 
Wheel-base of engine and tender 


Length over all of engine and tender 
Weight of engine in working order 


Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on two-wheel radial-bar truck 


Water capacity of tender tank 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 




Hauling capacity on a level, in tons of 
2,OOO Ib 


350 tons. 


475 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, or at a less proportion 
for fast speeds. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS, on pages 86, 87 , 
138 and 140. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



11 



LIGHT FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED SADDLE-TANK LOCOMOTIVE, 
WITH FRONT TRUCK. 

These engines are adapted for light suburban traffic and other service 
where a greater speed is needed than is easily attainable by four-wheel- 
connected tank locomotives, and where the run is not long enough to 
require a tender. As the weight of the water is used for traction, and 
there is no tender, these engines can haul heavier trains than those shown 
on the opposite page. This relative advantage increases with the 
grade. 

In most cases the "Back-Truck" design, described on pages 19, 20 or 
21 is preferable, as it admits more fuel space and more cab room. 

These engines may be run without turning, and are adapted to either 
wide or narrow gauge. 




n~i- ^ 1 diameter. . . 


1 
8 inches 


9 inches 


Cylinders ^ trok j 






Diameter of driving wheels 


30 inches 


33 inches 


Diameter of truck wheels 


... 18 inches. 


22 inches 


Rigid wheel-base 


5ft hi 


5 ft 9 hi 


Total wheel-base 


8 ft 7 in 


10 ft 9 in 


Length over all 


17 ft 6 in 


19 ft 9 in 


Weight in working order 


21,500 Ib. 


25,000 Ib 


Weight on driving wheels 


170001b 


21 000 Ib 


Weight on two-wheel radial-bar truck 
Water capacity of saddle tank 


3.500 Ib. 
275 gals 


4.000 Ib. 
325 gals 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 


20 Ib. 


25 Ib. 



Hauling capacity on a level, in tons of 
2,000 Ib 



425 tons. 



550 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 



12 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



SIX-WHEEL-CONNECTED LOCOMOTIVE, WITH TENDER. 




( diameter 


10 inches. 


11 inches 


12 inches. 


12 inches 


13 inches 


Cylinders^ 












( stroke 


16 inches. 


16 inches. 


16 inches. 


18 inches. 


18 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


33 inches. 


33 inches. 


36 inches. 


36 inches. 


40 inches. 


Wheel-base of engine 


7 ft. 8 in. 


8 ft. 1 in. 


8 ft. 1 in. 


9 ft. in. 


10 ft. in. 


Wheel-base of engine and tender. 


28 ft. in. 


28 ft. in. 


29 ft, in. 


29 ft. 6 in. 


30 ft. in. 


Length over all of engine and 












tender 


35 ft in 


39 ft in 


40 ft in 


41 ft in 


41 ft 6 in 


Weight of engine in working or- 












der (all on drivers) 


28,000 Ib. 


30,000 Ib. 


33,000 Ib. 


36,000 Ib. 


41,000 Ib. 


Water capacity of tender tank . . 


800 gals. 


1,050 gals. 


1,050 gals. 


1,050 gals. 


1,200 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 












rail advised 


25 Ib 


30 Ib 


30 Ib 


30 Ib 


35 Ib 














Hauling capacity on a 












level, in tons of 2,OOO 












Ib 


750 tons 


800 tons 




975 tons 


1 100 tons 















To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

For SADDLE-TANK LOCOMOTIVES of this class, see page 23. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 13 



These engines are equalized between rear and centre drivers ; they also 
have a cross equalizer at front drivers. The centre drivers are without 
flanges. The engines are easy on the track, and curve well up to a speed 
of 15 to 20 miles per hour. Having all their weight on drivers, and 
having a short wheel base, they are specially adapted to hauling heavy 
loads on steep grades and short curves, and in many cases are preferable 
to the " Mogul " described on page 16. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 98, 100, 
101, 146 and 147. 



14 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



LIGHT SIX-WHEEL-CONNECTED LOCOMOTIVE, WITH TENDER. 




{diameter 


8 inches. 


9 inches. 


W> in 








**/% *** 


stroke 


14 inches. 


14 inches. 


14 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


26 inches. 


28 inches. 


33 inches. 


Wheel-base of engine 


5 ft. 5 in. 


5 ft. 10 in. 


7 ft. 3 in. 


Wheel-base of engine and tender 


20 ft. in. 


21 ft. in. 


22 ft. in. 


Length over all of engine and tender 


27 ft. in. 


28 ft. in. 


30 ft. in. 


Weight of engine in working order (all on 








drivers) 


16,000 Ib. 


18,500 Ib. 


22,000 Ib. 


Water capacity of tender tank 


300 gals. 


500 gals. 


800 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised. . 


16 Ib. 


20 Ib. 


25 Ib. 


Hauling capacity on a level, in 








tons of 2,OOO Ib 


400 tons. 


500 tons. 


600 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

NOTE. The 8x14 cylinders locomotive has four-wheeled 
tender. 



For SADDLE TANK LOCOMOTIVES of this class, see page 22. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 15 



These engines are designed for local freight or mixed trains on light 
equipped roads narrow or standard gauge ; also for construction, and for 
special service where the run is longer than is expedient for saddle-tank 
engines. Curves of less than 100 feet radius are admissible. The centre 
drivers are without flanges. The weight on drivers is equalized in the 
same manner as the engines on page 12. We would advise that the run- 
ning time should not exceed 15 miles per hour, although on easy grades 
and curves this style has run 30 miles per hour. 

We are prepared to build smaller sizes of this style, and also to add a 
two- wheel pony truck (like page 16) ; but in most cases some other style 
would be preferable. 

NOTE. Refer to page 4-6 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 96, 97, 
142 and 143. 



16 



H. K. PORTER & GO. 



MOGUL LOCOMOTIVE. 




{diameter. 


11 inches. 


12 inches. 


12 inches. 


13 inches. 14 inches. 


stroke 


16 inches. 


16 inches. 


18 inches. 


18 inches. 


20 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


36 inches. 


36 inches. 


40 inches. 


40 inches. 


44 inches. 


Diameter of truck wheels 


24 inches. 


24 inches. 


26 inches. 


26 inches. 


28 inches. 


Rigid wheel-base of engine 


9 ft. in. 


9 ft. in. 


9 ft. 3 in. 


11 ft. 5 in. 


12 ft. 2 in. 


Total wheel-base of engine 


14 ft. 6 in. 


14 ft. 6 in. 


15 ft. in. 


17 ft. 6 in. 


18 ft. 2 in. 


Wheel-base of engine and tender 


33 ft. in. 


33 ft. 6 in. 


35 ft. 2 in. 


37 ft. 2 in. 


38 ft. in. 


Length over all of engine and 












tender 


40 ft. 6 in. 


41 ft. 2 in. 


42 ft. 8 in. 


45 ft. in. 


45 ft. 8 in. 


Weight of engine in working 












order 


32,000 Ib. 


35,000 Ib. 


38,000 Ib. 


44,000 Ib. 


51,000 Ib. 


Weight on driving wheels 


27,500 Ib. 


30,500 Ib. 


33,000 Ib. 


38,000 Ib. 


43,000 Ib. 


Weight on two- wheel radial-bar 












truck 


4,500 Ib. 


4,500 Ib. 


5,000 Ib. 


6,000 Ib. 


8,000 Ib. 


Water capacity of tender tank. . 


1,050 gals. 


1,050 gals. 


1,200 gals. 


1,400 gals. 


1,600 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 












rail advised 


30 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


35 Ib. 


40 Ib. 


Hauling capacity on a 












level, in tons of 2,OOO 












Ib. . 


700 tons. 


800 tons. 


900 tons. 


1.000 tons. 


1,150 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 17 



These engines are specially adapted for hauling freight on long roads 
where considerable speed is desired. They are also useful in hauling 
mixed trains or passenger trains on heavy grades. 

Curves of 150 feet radius, a speed of 25 miles per hour, and daily 
mileage of 150 or more miles are practicable. 

The rear and centre pairs of drivers, also the front drivers and the 
truck, are equalized together. The centre drivers are without flanges. 

Our ' ' Mogul " locomotives, by reason of their short rigid wheel-base 
and superior design of truck, are able to pass very sharp curves with 
ease. Their centre of weight is very low, which gives unusual stability 
and safety at high speed. 

We are prepared to build smaller sizes of "Mogul" locomotives than 
are described on the opposite page. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, or at a less proportion for 
fast speeds. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 97 to 101, 
and 141 to 147. 



18 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



"DOUBLE-ENDER" LOCOMOTIVE. 

This style is especially adapted for suburban passenger roads of wide or 
narrow gauge, where a compact, fast engine is desired, which, by running 
equally well forward or back, requires no turn-table or Y. Sharp curves are 
admissible. On easy grades and straight track these engines are capable of 
a speed of 30 to 40 miles per hour. These engines are not intended for 
very heavy loads or excessive grades. Their motion is very easy, as both 
pairs of driving wheels are equalized and the weight is well distributed. 

This style is adaped to narrow or wide gauges, and we are prepared 
to build several other sizes in addition to those given below. 

The styles illustrated on pages 19, 20, 21, 86, and 37 maybe preferable 
where heavy grades are to be overcome, or heavy trains are to be hauled. 




w'-HSSE??::" 

Diameter of driving wheels 
Diameter of truck wheels 
Rigid wheel-base 
Total wheel-base 


8 inches 
14 inches. 
30 to 33 in. 
16tol8in. 
5 ft. in. 
15 ft. in. 
22 ft. in. 
23,000 Ib. 
15,000 Ib. 
8.000 Ib. 
250 gals. 

20 Ib. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
33 to 36 in. 
18 to 20 in. 
5 ft. 9 in. 
15 ft. 9 in. 
24 ft. in. 
29,000 Ib. 
19,000 Ib. 
10,000 Ib. 
325 gals. 

25 Ib. 


10 inches 
16 inches. 
40 to 44 in. 
22 to 24 in. 
6 ft. 6 in. 
18 ft. 6 in. 
30 ft. in. 
39,000 Ib. 
27,000 Ib. 
12,000 Ib. 
500 gals. 

30 Ib. 


12 inches. 
18 inches. 
44 to 48 in. 
21 to 26 in. 
6 ft. 9 in. 
20 ft. in. 
32 ft. 6 in. 
49,000 Ib. 
33,000 Ib. 
J 6,000 Ib. 
750 gals. 

35 Ib. 


14 inches. 
20 inches. 
48 inches. 
26 inches. 
7 ft. in. 
21 ft. in. 
35 ft. in. 
58,000 Ib. 
40,000 Ib. 
18,000 Ib. 
900 gals. 

40 Ib. 


Length over all 
Weight in working order 
Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on two trucks 
Capacity of saddle tank 
Weight per yard of lightest steel 
rail advised 




Hauling capacity on a 
level, In tons of 2.OOO 
Ib 


350 tons. 


475 tons. 


650 tons. 


850 tons. 


1,000 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. The 8x 14 and 9 x 14 cylinders are placed slightly inclined. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
ortwo-thirds of their full capacity, or at a less proportion for 
fast speeds. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 86, 87 
and 91. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



19 



"BACK TRUCK" LOCOMOTIVE. 

(AS ADAPTED TO LOCAL PASSENGER SERVICE.) 

This style is advisable for suburban roads, for passenger or mixed 
service, for either narrow or wide gauge, where considerable power com- 
bined with fast speed is required. No turn-table is needed, and the 
motion is easy both when running with the truck ahead or following. 
Very sharp curves are practicable. Speeds of 15 to 25 miles per hour on 
curves and grades, and 30 to 40 miles per hour under favorable circum- 
stances may be attained. The driving wheels are equalized, the weight 
is well distributed ; and as a much larger proportion of the weight is used 
for traction, this style is usually preferable to the "double ender" style 
described on the opposite page. 

We are prepared to build this general style of the smaller sizes 
described on page 20, but these are only suitable for very light work. 




diameter . . ; 9 inches. 
'( stroke i 14 inches. 

Diameter of driving 
wheels 33 to 36 in. 

Diam. of truck wheels. 20 to 22 in. 

Rigid wheel-base 4 ft. 6 in. 

Total wheel-base 12 ft. 4 in. 

Length over all, includ- 
ing pilots 28 ft. in. 

Weight in working or- 
der 28,000 Ib. 

Weight on driving 
wheels 21,000 Ib. 

Weight on two-wheel 
radial-bar truck 7,000 Ib. 

Water capacity of sad- 
dle-tank 375 gals. 

Weight per yard of 
lightest steel rail ad- 
vised. . . 25 Ib. 



9^ inches 10 inchps. 13 inches. 14 inches. 14 inches. 
14 inches. 16 inches. -18 inches. !20 inches 24 inches. 

33 to 36 in. 36 inches. J40 inches. |44 inches. >44 inches. 

20 to 22 in. 22 inches. 21 inches. 26 inches. 26 inches. 

4 ft. 6 in 5 ft. 3 in.) 5 ft. 9 in. 1 6 ft. 3 in. 1 7 ft. in. 



12 ft. 6 in 13 ft. 4 in. 
29 ft. in. 30 ft. in. 



31,000 Ib. 35,000 Ib. 44,000 Ib. 



14 ft. in. 15 ft. in. 15 ft. 9 in. 



31 ft. in. 



32 ft. in. 34 ft. in. 
54,000 Ib. 59,000 Ib. 



1 34,000 Ib. 27,500 Ib. 35,500 Ib. 145,000 Ib. 
| 7,000 Ib. 7,500 Ib. 8,500 Ib. ' 9,000 Ib. 
| 400 gals. 500 gals. 750 gals. 900 gals. 



25 Ib 



30 Ib. 



35 Ib. 



45 Ib. 



50,000 Ib. 
9,000 Ib. 
1,000 gals. 



50 Ib. 



Hauling capac- 
ity on a level, in 
tons of 2.OOO 

Ib 525tous. 



623 tons. 725 tons. 925 tons. 1150 tons. 



1300 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. The 9x14 and 9^x14 cylinders are placed slightly inclined. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, or at a less proportion for 
fast speeds. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 88, 90, 91, 
96 and 99. 



H. K, PORTER & CO., 



LIGHT "BACK-TRUCK" LOCOMOTIVE. 

(FOR LOGGING RAILROADS AND SIMILAR SERVICE.) 

The style of locomotives illustrated and described below and on the opposite page 
is adapted to a great variety of service, including logging roads and plantation 
roads, where the track is uneven and the speed slow ; for switching and shifting 
where heavy loads are to be stopped and started promptly; and for local passenger 
traffic where the speed is fast and frequent stops are made. 

For logging railroads and for plantations an open sheet-iron canopy is often used 
instead of a wooden cab, as shown on page 39. 

These locomotives to a great extent combine the advantages and avoid the dis- 
advantages of the "Double Ender" style on page 18, and of the " Four- Wheel- 
Connected " style on pages 24 and 26. 

The driving wheels are equalized, and a very large (Continued on opposite page) 




This cat shows cab with side sliding doors and banker in 

rear part of cab (filled from outside if for coal) 

for cold climate. 



This cat shows cab with open entrances at sides and separal 

rear fuel bunker for coal or wood, for warm 

climate. 



<*ifc<H3!S ter ::: 


6 inches 
10 inches. 
24 inches. 
16 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
8 ft. 6 in. 
14ft. in. 
15,000 Ib. 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 
28 inches. 
16 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
9 ft. 1 in. 
16 ft. 4 in. 
18,500 Ib. 
14,000 Ib. 
4,500 Ib. 
200 gals. 
16 Ib. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
18 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
9 ft. 10 in. 
17 ft. 4 in. 
22,500 Ib. 
16,500 Ib. 
5,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 
20 Ib. 


Diameter of driving wheels 
Diameter of truck wheels 


Rigid wheel-base . . . 


Total wheel-base 


Length over all. . . . 


Weight in working order 


Weight on driving wheels 


11,000 Ib. 
4,000 Ib. 
150 gals. 
16 Ib. 


Weight on two-wheel radial-bar truck 
Capacity of saddle tank 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 


Hauling: capacity on a level, in tons of 
2,OOO Ib 


250 tons. 


350 tons. 


425 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE.-Refer to page 4-6 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used atone-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on page 86 and 
pages 133 to 139. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



21 



"BACK TRUCK" LOCOMOTIVE. 

(FOR LOGGING RAILROADS AND SIMILAR SERVICE.) 

(Continued from opposite page) proportion of the weight is useful for traction. No 
turn-tables or Y's are required for these locomotives, since they run forward or 
backward with equal ease. They are adapted for sharp curves, and have an easy 
motion on rough track. They are capable of hauling large loads and attaining 
high rates of speed. They are very compact, and do not require heavy rails. 

Other styles of four-driver tank engines with trucks are described on pages 9 and 
11, and on pages 39, 35, 36 and 37. 




This cut shows a cab with fuel bunker in back part of cab (filled from outside if for 
coal fuel), with side sliding doors adapted to Northern climate. We are prepared to 
build with a short cab and rear bunker for Southern climate, like the cut on page 19. 
Coal bunkers may also be arranged like page 24. 



Diameter of driving 
wheels 

Diam. of truck wheels. 

Rigid wheel-base 

Total wheel-base 

Length over all, not in- 
cluding pilot 

Weight in working or- 
der 

Weight on driving 
wheels 

Weight on two-wheel 
rjidial-bar truck 

Water capacity of sad- 
dle tank 

Weight per yard of 
lightest steel rail ad- 



9 inches. 
14 inches. 

33 to 36 in. 
20 to 22 in. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
12 ft. 4 in. 

20 ft. in. 
28,000 Ib. 
21,000 Ib. 

7,000 Ib. 

375 gals. 

25 Ib. 



9^ inches 10 inches. 12 inches. 
14 inches. 16 inches. 18 inches. 



33 to 36 in. 
20 to 22 in. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
12 ft. 10 in. 



36 inches. 40 inches 

22 inches. 24 inches. 

5ft. Sin. 5 ft. 9 in. 

13 ft. 4 in. 14ft.lOin. 



21 ft. in. 
31,000 Ib. 
24,000 Ib. -27,500 Ib. 

7,000 Ib. 

400 gals: 



22 ft. in. 23 ft. in. 
35,000 Ib. 44,000 Ib. 



14 inches. 14 inches. 
20 inches. 24 inches. 

44 inches. 44 inches. 
26 inches. 26 inches. 
6ft. 3 in. 7ft. in. 

15 ft. 6 in. 15 ft. 9 in. 



24 ft. in. 26 ft. in. 
54,000 Ib. 59,000 Ib. 



35,500 Ib. 45,000 Ib. 



50,000 Ib. 



7,500 Ib. 8,500 Ib. 
500 gals. 700 gals. 



9,000 Ib. 9,000 Ib. 
900 gals. 1,000 gals. 



25 Ib. 



30 Ib. 



35 Ib. 



45 Ib. 



45 Ib. 



Hauling capac- 
ity on a level, in 
tons of 2,OOO 
Ib 



625 tons. 725 tons. 



l,150tons. l,300tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling- capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used atone-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

NOTE. The 9 x 14 and 9J^ x 14 cylinders are placed slightly inclined. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 97, 100, 
101, 108, 125 and pages 140 to 147. 



22 



H. K. PORTER & GO., 



LIGHT SIX-WHEEL-CONNECTED TANK LOCOMOTIVE, 

These locomotives are specially useful on short runs where consider- 
able loads are to be taken up steep grades. They are well adapted for 
switching and other special service. 

The 9 x 14 and the 9^ x 14 sizes are good engines for suburban roads 
with steep grades, where engines with separate tenders are not desired ; for 
such service we often build with rear fuel bunker, two pilots, and two 
headlight brackets. For switching and other similar service, the fuel 
bunker of our six- wheel-connected tank engines may be at the rear, or 
inside the cab, as in our four- wheel-connected tank engines on page 26, 
or at the sides, as shown on page 24. For (Continued on opposite page) 




( diameter 


8 inches 


9 inches 


91^ inches 


Cylinders^ 
( stroke 


14 inches. 


14 inches 


14 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


26 inches 




30 inches 


Wheel-base 


5 ft 5 in 


5 ft 10 in 


7 ft 3 in 


Length over all 
Weight in working order (all on drivers) 
Capacity of saddle tank' 


16 ft. in. 
20,000 Ib. 
250 gals 


17 ft. in. 
25,000 Ib. 
325 gals 


18 ft. in. 
28,000 Ib. 
400 p-als 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 


20 Ib. 


25 Ib. 


25 Ib. 


Hauling capacity on a level, in tons 
of 2,OOO Ib 


500 tons 




700 tons 











To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

Six-wheel-connected locomotives, wiih tender instead of saddle tank, 
are shown on page 14. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their f ull capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 102, 103, 
104, 140, 141 and 142. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



23 



SIX-WHEEL-CONNECTED TANK LOCOMOTIVE. 

(Continued from opposite page) logging railroads and freight work the 
cabs may be built with side sliding doors. 

The 14x20 locomotive is specially adapted to wide gauge ; the other 
sizes may be built to wide or narrow gauge. 

The short wheel bases of these engines allow them to pass sharp 
curves, and our method of equalizing weight on drivers makes them 
easy in their motion. They may also be built with pony truck at the 
rear end, but there is seldom any advantage in this construction. 




l diameter 


10 inches. 
16 inches. 
30 inches. 
7 ft. 8 in. 
19 ft. in. 


12 inches. 
16 inches. 
33 inches. 
8 ft. 1 in. 
20 ft. in. 


12 inches. 
18 inches. 
36 inches. 
9 ft. in. 
20 ft. 6 in. 


14 inches. 
20 inches. 
40 inches. 
10 ft. in. 
21 ft. 6 in. 


Cylinders \ 
( stroke 


Diameter of driving wheels 


Wheel-base 


Length over all ... 



Weight in working order (all on drivers)... 33,000 Ib. 38,000 Ib. 43,000 Ib 51,000 Ib. 



Capacity of saddle tank 600 gals. ! 750 gals 750 gals. 

Weight per yard of lightest steel rail ad- 
vised... 30 Ib. I 35 Ib. 35 Ib. 



900 gals. 



45 Ib. 



Hauling- capacity on a level, in 
tons of 2,OOO Ib |850tons. 



950 tons. 



1150 tons, 



1350 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

Six-wbeel-connected locomotives, with tender instead of saddle tank, 
are shown on page 12. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 104, 105, 
145 and 147. 



24 



H. K. PORTER & GO., 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED TANK LOCOMOTIVE. 

These engines are designed for shifting and special service. 

The 9| x!4 and 10 x 16 are adapted to either wide or narrow gauge, but 
the larger sizes are not advisable for much narrower than 56^ inches 
gauge. 

These engines have a cross equalizer at front drivers, by which to a 
considerable extent the uneven motion of an ordinary four-wheel engine 
is avoided. They are adapted to sharp curves, steep grades, slow speed, 
and heavy loads. 




{diameter 


9^j inches 


10 inches. 


12 inches. 


14 inches. 


14 inches. 














stroke 


14 inches. 


16 inches. 


18 inches. 


20 inches. 


24 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


30 inches. 


33 inches. 


36 inches. 40 inches. 


44 inches. 


Wheel-base 


4 ft. 6 in. 


5 ft 3 in 


5 ft 9 in 


6 ft 3 in 


7 ft in 


Length over all 


16 ft. 9 in. 


17 ft. 2 in. 


19 ft. 9 in. 


20 ft. in. 


22 ft. in. 


Weight in working order (all on 












drivers ) 


25 000 lb 


29 000 lb 


39 000 lb 


48 000 lb 


53 000 lb 


Capacity of saddle tank 


400 gals 


500 gals 


750 ffals 


900 gals 


900 gals 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 












rail advised 


30 lb 


35 lb 


40 lb 


50 lb 


50 ib 














Hauling capacity on a 












level, in tons of 2,OOO 












lb 


650 tons. 


750 tons. 


1,000 tons. 


1,250 tons. 


1,400 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 106, 107, 
108, 109 and 145. 

NOTE. The 9^ x 14 cylinders are placed slightly inclined. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



25 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED LOCOMOTIVE, WITH TENDER. 

These locomotives are designed for the same general service as those 
on the opposite page, but where the rail requires a lighter engine, or 
the length of the run makes a separate tender desirable. A four-wheel 
tender is usually sufficient, but we are prepared to build with eight- 
wheel tender if desired. 

A four-wheel locomotive must necessarily have an uneven motion, for 
a perfect equalization of the weight is impossible. Except for slow speed 
and short runs, the locomotives shown on pages 19, 21, 37, and 36 are 
preferable to the four-wheel connected style. 




{diameter 
stroke 


9^ inches 
14 inches. 
33 inches. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
20 ft. in. 

28 ft. in. 

22,000 Ib. 
500 gals. 

25 Ib. 


10 inches. 
16 inches. 
36 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
21 ft. in. 

29 ft. 6 in. 

25,000 Ib. 
600 gals. 

30 Ib. 


12 inches. 
18 inches. 
40 inches. 
5 ft. 9 in. 
22 ft. 6 in. 

31 ft. 6 in. 

30,000 Ib. 
800 gals. 

35 Ib. 


14 inches. 
20 inches. 
44 inches. 
6 ft. 3 in. 
24 ft. 6 in. 

33 ft. in. 

40,000 Ib. 
900 gals. 

40 Ib. 


14 inches. 
24 inches. 
48 inches. 
7 ft. in. 
26 ft. in. 

36 ft. in. 

45,000 Ib. 
1,050 gals. 

40 Ib. 


Diameter of driving wheels 
Wheel-base of engine 


Wheel-base of engine and tender 
Length over all of engine and 
t-ender 


Weight of engine in working 
order 


Capacity of tender tank 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 
rail advised 




Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 
Ib. .. 


550 tons. 


650 tons. 


800 tons. 


1.000 tons. 


1.200 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II. , page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

NOTE. The 9}^ x 14 cylinders are placed slightly inclined. 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



LIGHT FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED TANK LOCOMOTIVE. 

These engines are designed for special service, contractor's work, and 
other work where the run is not long, on wide or narrow gauge, where 
a simple design with power is needed without special capacity for speed. 
The 8 x 14 and 9x14 are useful for light work on wide gauge ; smaller 
than 7 x 12 is rarely advisable on wide gauge. The 5x10 is adapted for 
very narrow gauges, and is only advisable for easy work. These engines 
are well balanced and easy in their motion, being equalized across at front 
drivers. They are adapted to sharp curves and heavy grades. The 
proper speed with load is 6 to 10 miles per hour 




( diameter 


5 inches. 


6 inches. 


7. inches. 


8 inches. 


9 inches. 


Cylinders < 












( stroke 


10 inches. 


10 inches. 


12 inches. 


14 inches. 


14 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


22 inches. 


23 inches. 


24 inches. 


28 inches. 


30 inches. 


Wheel-base 


4 ft. in. 


4 ft in 


4 ft. 8 in. 


5 ft. in. 


5 ft. 3 in. 


Length over all 


10 ft. in. 


11 ft. in. 


12 ft. 7 in. 


14 ft. in. 


15 ft. 1 in. 


Weight in working order (all on 












drivers ) 


8,500 Ib. 


12,000 Ib. 


15,000 Ib. 


18,000 Ib. 


22,000 Ib. 


Capacity of saddle tank 


125 gals. 


150 gals. 


200 gals. 


250 gals. 


325 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 












rail advised 


14 Ib. 


16 Ib. 


20 Ib. 


25 Ib. 


30 Ib. 


Hauling capacity on a 












level, in tons of 2,OOO 












Ib 


175 tons. 


275 tons. 


375 tons. 


450 tons. 


550 tons. 















To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 93, 110, 
to 125, and 132 to 139. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



27 



LIGHT FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED LOCOMOTIVE, WITH TENDER. 

These engines are designed for the same general service as the engines 
shown on the opposite page, but where the rail requires a lighter engine, 
or the length of the run renders a tender desirable. A four-wheel 
tender is sufficient. 

A four-wheel locomotive must necessarily have an uneven motion, for a 
perfect equalizing of the weight is impossible. Except for slow speed and 
short runs, the locomotives shown on pages 20, 37 and 36 are preferable 
to the four-wheel connected style. 




( diameter. . . . 


6 inches. 
10 inches. 
26 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
13 ft. 9 in. 
20 ft. in. 
10,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 

12 Ib. 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 
28 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
14 ft. 6 in. 
21 ft. 6 in. 
13,OCO Ib. 
300 gals. 

16 Ib. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
17 ft. 3 in. 
24 ft. 6 in. 
16,000 Ib. 
300 gals. 

20 Ib. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
33 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
17 ft. 6 in. 
25 ft. 6 in. 
19,000 Ib. 
500 gals. 

25 Ib. 


Cylinders- 
(stroke ... 


Diameter of driving wheels 


Wheel-base of engine 


Wheel-base of engine and tender . . 


Length over all of engine and tender 
Weight of engine in working order 
Capacity of tender tank 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail 
advised 




Hauling capacity on a level, in 
tons of 2.OOO Ib. .. 


225 tons. 


325 tons. 


400 tons. 


500 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 117, 118, 
137 and 139. 



28 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



SIX-WHEEL-CONNECTED MINE LOCOMOTIVE. 




{diameter 


R infhes. 


9 inches. 9t^ inphps 








stroke . . . . ... 14 inches. 


14 inches 


14 inches 








Diameter of driving wheels. . 24. innhAs. 


26 inches. 


26 inches 


Wheel-base 


5 ft. 5 in. 


5 ft. 10 in. 


7 ft. 3 in. 


Length over all 


15 ft. in. 


16 ft. in. 


17 ft. in. 


Extreme M idth on 36 inches gauge 


65 inches. 


67 inches. 


67 inches. 


Extreme height from rail, least advised 


6 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. 6 in. 


6 ft. 6 in. 


Extreme height from rail, least possible 


5 ft. 6 in. 


5 ft. 8 in. 


5 ft. 10 in. 


Weight in working order 


19,000 Ib. 


23,000 Ib. 


26,000 Ib. 


Capacity of saddle tank 


250 gals 


300 gals 


350 gals 


Weight per yard of lightest steel rail advised 


16 Jb. 


20 Ib. 


25 Ib. 


Hauling capacity on a level, in tons of 








2,OOO Ib 


475 tons. 


600 tons. 


675 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I. , page 47. 

For practicable hints as to operating mine locomotives, see page 71. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 29 



These engines are equalized between the rear and centre drivers and 
across at the front drivers. The centre drivers are without flanges. It is 
possible for these engines to pass around curves of 30 to 50 feet radius ; 
but we advise 75 feet as the shortest radius desirable. For the best draft 
of stack and convenience of engineer, all the height possible should be 
given. By altering patterns, we can build lower than the lesser height 
given on opposite page. The widest point is at the cylinders, about two 
feet above the track. The cab and tank are generally rounded at the top, 
but may be made to suit the shape of the mine opening. 

The weights of these locomotives may be modified, and different sizes 
of driving wheels used to suit special requirements. 

We are prepared to build larger or smaller locomotives of this style, 
and also for any practicable gauge of track. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion 
is advised when the cars have loose wheels. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 129 and 
130. 






H. K. PORTER & CO., 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED MINE LOCOMOTIVE. 




piriinHarc ( diameter . . 
Cylinders ^ gtroke 

Diameter of driving 
wheels 


5 inches. 
10 inches. 

22 inches 
4 ft. in. 
10 ft. in. 

60 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
4 ft. 6 in. 

8,000 Ib. 
125 gals. 

16 Ib. 


6 inches. 
10 inches. 

23 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
11 ft. 6 in. 

62)4 in. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
4 ft. 9 in. 

ll,5001b. 
150 gals. 

16 Ib. 


7 inches 
12 inches. 

24 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
12 ft. 7 in. 

64 inches. 
5 ft. 6 in. 
5 ft, in. 

15,000 Ib. 
200 gals. 

20 Ib. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 

26 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
13 ft. in. 

65^ in. 
6 ft. 4 in. 
5 ft. 8 in. 

18,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 

25 Ib. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 

28 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
15 ft. 1 in. 

67 inches. 
6 ft. 6 in. 
5 ft. 10 in. 

21,500 Ib. 
325 gals. 

30 Ib. 


10 inches. 
14 inches. 

28 inches. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
16 ft. 9 in. 

68 inches. 
6 ft. 9 in. 
5 ft. 10 in. 

24,500 Ib. 
400 gals. 

30 Ib. 


Wheel-base 


Length over all 
Extreme width on 36 
inches gauge 


Extreme height from 
rail, least advised . . . 
Extreme height from 
rail, least possible. . . 
Weight in working or- 
der 


Capacity of saddle tank 
Weight per yard of 
lightest steel rail ad- 
vised .... 




Hauling capac- 
ity on a level, in 
tons of 2,OOO 
Ib. . . . 


150 tons. 


250 tons. 


350 tons. 


425 tons. 


525 tons. 


600 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I. , page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion 
is advised when the cars have loose wheels. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS, on pages 126 to 
131. 

For practical hints as to operating mine locomotives, see page 71. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



31 



The locomotives illustrated on the opposite page have a cross equalizer 
at the front drivers. They can pass around curves of 30 feet, or even less 
radius ; but we advise 50 feet as the very shortest radius desirable. By 
altering patterns we can build lower than the lesser height given on oppo- 
site page. For the best draft of stack and convenience of engineer, all the 
height possible should be given. The widest point is at the cylinders, 
about two feet above the track. The tank and cab may be of shape 
required by mine opening. 

The weights of these locomotives may be modified, and different sizes 
of driving wheels used to suit special requirements. 

We are prepared to build four-wheel-connected mine locomotives with 
the same size of cylinders and weights as the locomotives on page 24. 
We are also prepared to build for any practicable gauge of track. 



INSIDE CONNECTED MINE LOCOMOTIVE, 

The illustration given below shows our mine locomotive with crank 
axle and inside cylinders. This construction is expensive and objection- 
able, a'nd only recommended for very narrow tunnels which cannot be 
widened at reasonable expense. 

We build but one size of this design, with dimensions as follows : 

Cylinders 9 inches diameter by 12 inches stroke. 

Wheel-base 4 feet. 

Length over all 15 feet 6 inches. 

Extreme width on 36 inches gauge 50 inches. 

Least height 5 feet. 

Saddle tank 250 gals. 

Weight in running order 16,000 Ibs. 

Lightest rail 25 Ibs. 

Hauling capacity on a level 375 tons. 

A narrower gauge than 36 inches requires change in patterns for this 
design. 




H. K. PORTER & CO., 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED REAR TANK MOTOR. 

This design may be built with pilots or with dash-boards, or without 
either ; and with or without side-flaps, as preferred. 

For a more complete description of construction and details, and for 
practical hints for operating our motors, see pages 61 to 66. 

For additional designs of enclosed motors see pages 42, 43, 44 and 45. 

MEMORANDUM. The mine engine 32 of previous editions is now found on page 31. 




(.WITH PILOTS AND SIDE-FLAPS.) 



{diameter 
stroke 

Diameter of driving wheels 

Wheel-base 

Length over all 

Height over all 

Weight in working order, all on 

drivers 

Capacity of rear tank 

Weight per yard of lightest steel 
T rail ad vised... 



inches. 7 inches. I 8 inches. 
10 inches. 12 inches. 14 inches. 
23 inches. 24 inches. 28 inches. 
4ft. in. | 4ft. Sin. 5 ft. in. 
16 ft. 6 in. 



15ft. in. i 15 ft. 6 in. 
9 ft. 5 in. 9ft. Sin. 



9 inches.; 10 inches. 

I 
14 inches.: 14 inches. 

30 inches, j 33 inches. 
5ft. 3 in. 4ft. Gin. 



17 ft. 6 in. 



18 ft. 6 in. 



9 ft. 9 in. 10 ft. in. 10 ft. 2 in. 



Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 



14,000 Ib. 17,000 lb. 20,000 lb. 

\ 
125 gals, i 150 gals. 



16 lb. 20 lb. 



; 25,0001b. 28,000 lb. 
300 gals. , 350 gals. 



25 lb. 



30 lb. 



35 lb. 



250 tons. , 350 tons. ; 450 tons. 550 tons. 



675 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work motors should be used at one-half or 
two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion is 
advised. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS, pages 92 to 95. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



33 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED SADDLE TANK MOTOR. 

This design may be built with pilots or with dash-boards, or without 
either ; and with or without side-flaps, as preferred. 

For a more complete description of construction and details, and for 
practical hints for operating our motors, see pages 61 to 66. 

For additional designs of enclosed motors see pages 42, 43, 44 and 45. 




(WITHOUT DASH-BOARDS OR PILOTS 
OR SIDE FLAPS.) 



(Wrrn DASH-BOARDS AND 
SIDE-FLAPS ) 



Cylinders}*^:: 
Diameter of driving 


6 inches. 
10 inches. 

23 inches. 
4 ft. in. 

12 ft. in. 
9 ft. 5 in. 

14,000 lb. 
125 gals. 

16 lb. 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 

24 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 

13 ft. in. 
9 ft. 5 in. 

17,000 lb. 
200 gals. 

20 lb. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 

28 inches. 
5 ft. in. 

14 ft. in. 
9 ft. 9 in. 

20,(XXHb. 
250 gals. 

25 lb. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 

30 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 

15 ft. 6 in. 
10 ft. in. 

25,000 lb. 
325 gals. 

30 lb. 


10 inches. 
14 inches. 

33 inches. 
4 ft, 6 in. 

18 ft. in. 
10 ft. 2 in. 

28,000 lb. 
400 gals. 

35 lb. 


12 inches. 
18 inches. 

36 inches. 
5 ft. 9 in. 

20 ft. in. 
11 ft. in. 

40.000 lb. 
750 gals. 

40 lb. 


Wheel-base 
Length over all, with- 
out pilots or dash- 
boards 


Height over all 
Weight in working or- 
der (all on drivers). . 
Cap'ty of saddle tank. 
Weight per yard of 
lightest steel T rail 
advised 




Hauling capac- 
ity on a level, in 
tons of 2,OOO 
lb 


250 tons. 


350 tons. 


450 tons. 


550 tons. 


675 tons. 


950 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I. , page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work motors should be used at one-half or 
two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion is 
advised. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS, pages 92 to 95. 



34 



H. K. PORTER & GO., 



FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED PLANTATION LOCOMOTIVE. 

These locomotives may be built with wooden cabs (like that of the 
locomotive on page 26), but for plantation railroads the open sheet-iron 
canopy is preferable. The water is carried in two rear tanks, one at each 
side with connecting pipe, and serving as seats for the engineer. This 
construction gives the lightest possible weight, making this design suit- 
able for light rails or light trestle-work. One pair of driving wheels is 
equalized across and the locomotive is as free from rocking or oscillating 
motion as is possible for a four-wheel locomotive. This style is the 
simplest and least expensive, and is advisable unless the length of the 
road demands speed or greater fuel and water room. Page 38 shows this 
general style with tank on boiler. 




( diameter 


5 inches. 


6 inches. 


7 inches. 8 inches. 9 inches. 


Cylinders-] 


10 inches 


10 inches 






Diameter of driving wheels 


22 inches. 


22 inches. 


24 inches. 26 inches. 28 inches. 


Wheel-base 


4ft. in. 4ft. in. 4 ft. 8 in. 5ft, in. 5 ft. 3 in. 


Length over all 


10 ft. in. 


11 ft. in. 12 ft. 7 in. 13ft. in. 15ft. 1 in. 


Weight in working order (all on 




j 


drivers) 


8,000 Ib. 10.500 Ib. 


14 000 Ib 


17 000 Ib 21 000 Ib 


Capacity of tank 


100 gals. 


125 gals. 


150 gals. 


200 gals. 250 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 










rail advised 




12 Ib. 


. 14 Ib. 


16 Ib. 


20 Ib. 25 Ib. 


Hauling capacity on a 












level, in tons of 2.OOO 












Ib 


150 tons. 1 250 tons. 


350 tons. 450 tons. 


550 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I. , page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 111, 
112 and 132. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



35 



PLANTATION LOCOMOTIVE, WITH BACK TRUCK. 

These locomotives may be built with wooden cabs (as shown on page 
37), but for plantation railroads the open sheet iron canopy is usually 
preferable. The position of the tank at the rear instead of over the 
boiler involves some loss of power, but distributes the weight so as to 
admit the use of a lighter rail. The driving wheels are equalized and a 
very easy motion secured. Larger driving wheels may be used if greater 
speed is desired. Very sharp curves are admissible. The fuel is carried 
in the space over the tank. For very long roads with limited water 
supply an additional tank on the boiler may be used. 




Diameter of driving wheels 
Diameter of truck wheels.. 

Rigid wheel-base 

Total wheel-base 

Length over all 

Weight in working order. 



t> inches. 7 inches. 
10 inches. 12 inches. 
24 inches. 28 inches. 
14 inches. 16 inches. 
! 4 ft. in.; 4ft. Sin. 
! 9 ft. in. 10 ft. in. 
14 ft. 6 in. 17 ft. in. 



: 14,500 Ib. 



Weight on driving wheels i 9,000 Ib. 

Weight on two-wheel radial-bar; 



truck 

Capacity of tank. . 



Weight per yard of lightest steel 
rail advised 



5,500 Ib. 
125 gals. 

12 Ib. 



18.000 Ib. 
12,000 Ib. 

6,000 Ib. 
175 gals. 

16 Ib. 



8 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
18 inches. 

5 ft. in. 
10 ft. 6 in. 
17 ft. 9 in. 
21,500 Ib. 
14,500 Ib. 



9 inches. 9^2 inches 
14 inches. 14 inches. 
33 inches. 36 inches. 

20 inches. 22 inches. 
; 4ft. Gin. 4ft. 6 in. 

13 ft. 4 in. 13 ft. 10 in. 

21 ft. in. 22 ft. in. 
26,000 Ib. 29,000 Ib. 
18,000 Ib. 20,000 Ib. 



70001b. ' 8,000 Ib. 9,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 300 gals. 350 gals. 



20 Ib. 



25 Ib. 



25 Ib. 



Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 



200 tons. 



300 tons. 



375 tons. 450 tons. 525 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table 1 1., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 111, 116, 
118 and 119. 



36 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



FORNEY LOCOMOTIVE. 

This design was invented and patented by Mr. M. N. Forney. It is 
advisable, instead of the style shown on page 37, for locomotives of such 
size that the water and fuel cannot be carried on a two-wheel truck. It 
may often be used in the place of the locomotives on pages 8, 10, 12, and 
14, and is essentially the type shown on pages 25 and 27, modified by 
connecting the engine and tender in one rigid frame. It is a very simple 
and efficient design, and capable of a wide range of work, being power- 
ful enough for freight and fast enough for passenger work. If run with 
the truck ahead, it is, so far as ease of motion and speed are concerned, 
like the familiar eight-wheel passenger engine (page 4). The driving 
whet Is are equalized, and, except for roads with no sharp curves, the 
truck is fitted with swinging links. It is adapted to all gauges, and this 
style, and those with the two-wheel truck, are almost the only ones prac- 
ticable, unless for very small locomotives, for the 24 inches and other 
extremely narrow gauges. 

We are prepared to modify this design by adding a two-wheel front 
truck, but do not recommend it, as it makes too long an engine with too 
little power. 




(diameter... 


9 inches. 


9J^ inches 


10 inches. 


12 inches. 


14 inches. 


j stroke 


14 inches. 


14 inches. 


16 inches. 


18 inches. 


20 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 


33 to 36 in. 


36 to 40 in. 


40to44in. 


44 to 48 in. 


48 inches. 


Diameter of truck wheels 


18 to 20 in. 


20 to 22 in. 


22 inches. 


24 inches. 


24 inches. 


Rigid wheel-base. 


4 ft 6 in 


4 ft 6 in 


5 f r 3 in 


5 ft 9 in 


7 ft in 


Total wheel-base 


16 ft. 3 in. 


17 ft. in. 


17ft.lOin. 


18 ft. 2 in. 


19ft. 6 in. 


Length over all, including pilot. . 


28 ft. in. 


29 ft. 6 in. 


30 ft. 6 in. 


32 ft. in. 


34 ft. in. 


Weight in working order 
Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on four- \vheel rear truck. 
Water capacity of tank 


30,000 Ib. 
18,000 Ib. 
12,000 Ib. 
400 gals 


33,000 Ib. 
20,500 Ib. 
12,500 Ib. 
450 gals 


38,000 Ib. 
25,000 Ib. 
13,000 Ib. 
500 gals 


48,000 Ib. 
33,000 Ib. 
15.000 Ib. 
700 gals 


58,000 Ib. 
40,000 Ib. 
18,000 Ib. 
900 gals 


Weight per yard of lightest steel 
rail advised 


25 Ib 


25 Ib 


30 Ib 


35 Ib 


45 Ib 














Hauling capacity on a 




' 








level, in tons of 2,OOO 












Ib. 




55 tons 


675 tons 


850 tons 


1 050 tons 















To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II , page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

NOTE. The 9 x 14 and 9^ x 14 cylinders are placed slightly inclined. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 87, 89, 96, 
97 and 143. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



37 



BACK TRUCK PLANTATION LOCOMOTIVE, WITH WOODEN CAB. 

This design is the same as the Back Truck Plantation Locomotive 
described on page 35, with the exception of a wooden cab. For these 
small sizes the two-wheel radial truck is preferable to the four wheel, as 
it admits ample fuel and water capacity, and is simpler and can pass 
sharper curves. For very long roads, or where the water supply is lim- 
ited, an additional tank may be carried on the boiler, but this is advis- 
able only in exceptional cases. These locomotives are desirable for plan- 
tation roads, or other roads with light or portable track, where the open 
canopy is not preferable, and where the saddle-tank style is not desired. 
For light passenger service, if extra speed is needed, larger driving 
wheels may be used. The weight is well distributed, the motion very 
easy, and sharp curves admissible. 




o-H3S^::: 

Diameter of driving wheels 
Diameter of truck wheels 
Rigid wheel-base 


6 inches. 
10 inches. 
24 inches. 
14 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
9 ft. in. 
16 ft. 6 in. 
15,000 lb. 
9,000 lb. 

6,000 lb. 
125 gals. 

16 lb. 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 
23 inches. 
16 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
10 ft. in. 
19 ft. in. 
18,500 lb. 
12,000 lb. 

6,500 lb. 
175 gals. 

16 lb. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
18 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
10 ft. 6 in. 
19 ft. 9 in. 
21,500 lb. 
14,500 lb. 

7,000 lb. 
250 gals. 

20 lb. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
33 inches. 
20 inches. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
13 ft. 4 in. 
20 ft. in. 
26,000 lb. 
18,000 lb. 

8,000 lb. 
300 gals. 

25 lb. 


9^ inches 
14 inches. 
36 inches. 
22 inches. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
13 ft. 10 in. 
21 ft. in. 
29,000 lb. 
20,000 lb. 

9,000 lb. 
350 gals. 

25 lb. 


Total wheel-base 


Length over all 


Weight in working order 
Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on two-wheel radial-bar 
truck 


Capacity of tank 
Weight per yard of lightest steel 
rail advisable 




Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 
lb 


200 tons. 


300 tons. 


375 tons. 


450 tons. 


525 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 86, 115, 
119 and 136. 



38 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



LIGHT FOUR-WHEEL-CONNECTED TANK LOCOMOTIVE, WITH 
OPEN CANOPY. 

This design h identical with that on page 26, with the exception of 
the open sheet-iron canopy, and is also identical with that on page 34, 
with the exception of the position of the water tank. The open canopy 
is cheaper than a wooden cab, and generally preferable for hot climates ; 
the saddle tank, except for very light ra>ls, is pre f erable to rear tank, as 
it has more capacity and inci eases the total weight. For the three 
smallest, sizes solid chilled iron wheels may be used, and are cheaper 
than stt el tires. These locomotives are well balanced and the greatest 
ease of motion possible for a four wheel locomotive is secim-d by a cross 
equalizer at the front springs. They are adapted to sharp curves and 
steep grades. The proper speed with load is 6 to 10 miles per hour. 
Smaller than 7 x 12 cylinders of this style is rarely advisable for wide 
gauge. This style may also be built with separate tender, like page 27. 




w*{r!:::: 

Diameter of driving wheels 
Wheel-base 
Length over all 


5 inches. 
10 inches. 
23 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
10 ft. in. 


6 inches. 
10 inches. 
23 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
11 ft. in 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 
24 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
12 ft. 7 in 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
2"> inches. 
5 ft. in. 
14 ft in 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
15 ft 1 in 


Weight in working order (all on 
drivers ) 


85001b 


12 000 Ib 


15000 Ib 


18 000 Ib 


22 000 Ib 


Capacity of saddle tank 


125 gals. 


150 gals 


200 gals 


250 gals 


325 gals 


Weight per yard of lightest stetl 
rail advised 


12 Ib. 


16 Ib 


16 to 20 Ib 


25 Ib 


30 Ib 














Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 
Ib 




275 tons 


350 tons 


450 tons 


550 tons 















To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 110 to 125, 
and 133. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



LIGHT BACK TRUCK LOCOMOTIVE WITH OPEN CANOPY. 

(FOR LOGGING AND PLANTATION ROADS AND SIMILAR SERVICE.) 

This design is the same as that on pages 20 and 21, with the exception of 
the open sheet iron canopy, which is cheaper than the wooden cab and 
better adapted for hot climates. We are prepared to build larger sizes with 
canopy. For the smaller sizes solid chilled wheels may be used instead of 
steel tire, and are cheaper. The driving wheels are equalized and the 
motion easy, even on rough track, while the large proportion of weight on 
the driving wheels secures power. The truck is centre bearing, with swing 
motion and radial bar. Sharp curves, light rails, steep grades, and heavy 
loads, and, when needful, fast speeds are practicable. These locomotives 
are specially adapted to logging roads, plantation roads, and other service 
where there are objections to the four-wheel locomotive. 




Diameter of driving wheels 

Diameter of truck wheels 

Rigid wheel-base 

Total wheel-base 

Length over all 

Weight in working order 

Weight on driving wheels 

Weight on two-wheel radial-bar 

truck 

Capacity of saddle-tank 

Weight per yard of lightest steel 

rail advised. . . 



6 inches. 
10 inches. 
24 inches. 
16 inches. 

4 ft. in. 

8 ft. 6 in. 
14 ft. in. 
14,000 Ib. 
10,500 Ib. 



7 inches. 
12 inches. 
28 inches. 
16 inches. 

4 ft. 8 in. 

9 ft. 1 in. 
16 ft. 4 in. 
18,000 Ib. 
13,500 Ib. 



8 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
18 inches. 
I 5 ft. in. 
^9 ft. 10 in. 
!l6 ft. 9 in. 
J22.000 Ib. 
il7,000 Ib. 



9 inches. 9^ inches 
14 inches. 14 inches. 
33 inches. 36 inches. 
20 inches.:, 2 inches. 

4ft. 6 in J 4ft. 6 in. 
12 ft. 4 in. 12 ft. 6 in. 
20 ft. in. 21 ft. in. 
27,000 Ib. 30,000 Ib. 
20,000 Ib. 23,000 Ib. 



3.500 Ib. 4,500 Ib. 
150 gals. ; 200 gals. 



16 Ib. 



16 Ib. 



5,000 Ib. 7,000 Ib. 7,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 375 gals. < 400 gals. 

20 Ib. ! 25 Ib. 25 Ib. 



Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 
Ib. .. 



225 tons. 



325 tons. 



425 tons. 500 tons. 575 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

NOTE. The proportions of the 9 x 14 and 9^ x 14 locomotives differ slightly from 
the illustration above. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 133, 135, 
136 and 137. 



40 



H. K. PORTEE & CO., 



MILL LOCOMOTIVES. 

This design is the same as that described on pages 34, 38 and 41, 
modified for use inside of mills. These locomotives are used for moving 
hot ingots and blooms to the rolls, and no cab is required when the 
locomotive runs wholly inside the mill. When the locomotive is used 
about a Bessemer converter, for hauling fluid metal or taking ingots from 
the pit, or for moving cinder from the blast furnace, a sheet iron cab is 
desirable as shown on the opposite page. The 5 x 10 and 6 x 10 locomo- 
tives are used at the rolls, and the larger sizes are generally advisable for 
cinder and ingot work. For the larger sizes steel tired wheels are desir- 
able, but for the smaller sizes solid chilled wheels may be preferable. 
Usuallv no bell is needed. 




MEMORANDUM. The water may be carried in a saddle tank like the cut " Bloom," 
or in two-connected rear tanks like the "Ingot. 1 " The weight and power of the 
saddle tank design is slightly the greater. The rear tank design gives a slightly 
better outlook for the engineer. 



Cylinders^ %$* 


5 inches. 
10 inches. 
22 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
10 ft, in. 

7,500 Ib. 
100 gals. 


(') inches. 
10 inches. 
22 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
11 ft. in. 

10,000 Ib. 
125 gals. 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 
24 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
12 ft. 7 in. 

14,000 Ib. 
150 gals. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
28 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
13 ft. in. 

17,000 Ib. 
200 gals. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
15 ft 1 in. 

21,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 


Diameter of driving wheels 
Wheel-base 


Length over all 
Weight in working order, with 
two rear tanks (all on drivers) . 
Capacity of two tanks placed at 
rear . . 




Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2,OOO 
Ib 


150 tons. 


250 tons. 


350 tons. 


450 tons. 


550 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I. , page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 4-6 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 110 to 125. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



41 



STEEL WORKS AND COKE OVEN LOCOMOTIVES. 

This design is like pages 26 and 38, with the details arranged to suit the 
special requirements. Very little wood-work is used, and the cab is 
made* of sheet steel and shaped so as to clear any obstructions, and also to 
protect the engineer from heat. For Bessemer converters the cab is 
usually closed except at one side ; for cinder and ingot work the cab may 
be opened at the sides and closed at the front and back ; for miscellaneous 
work about mills and furnaces an open canopy like pages 38 and 34 may 
be preferable ; for coke ovens, where the locomotives haul the larries on a 
track placed between two rows of ovens, the cab is usually closed at the 
front, partly closed at the sides and open at the back. 






( diameter 
Cylinders - 
( stroke 

Diameter of driving wheels 
Wheel-base 
Length over all 
Weight in working order (all on 
drivers) 


5 inches. 
10 inches. 
22 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
10 ft. in. 

8,500 Ib. 
125 gals. 


6 inches. 
10 inches. 
22 inches. 
4 ft. in. 
11 ft. Oin. 

12,000 Ib. 
150 gals. 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 
24 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 

12 ft. 7 in. 

15,000 Ib. 
200 gals. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 
23 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
13 ft. in. 

1 8,000 Ib. 
250 gals. 


9 inches. 
14 inches. 
30 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
15 ft. 1 in. 

22,000 Ib. 
325 gals. 


Capacity of saddle tank 


Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2.OOO 
Ib. 


175 tons. 


275 tons. 


350 tons. 


450 tons. 


550 tons. 





To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity ; for regular work locomotives should be used at one-half 
or two-thirds of their full capacity. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 110 to 125. 



42 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



LIGHT BACK TRUCK MOTOR. 

(WITH SADDLE TANK.) 

This design may be built with pilots or with dash-boards or without 
either ; and with or without side-flaps, as preferred. 

For a more complete description of construction and details, and for 
practical hints for operating our motors, see pages 61 to 66. 




( WITH DASH-BOARDS 



Cylinder, {J;;; 


7 inches. 
12 inches. 


8 inches. 
14 inches. 


inches. 
14 inches. 


10 inches. 
14 inches. 


Diameter of driving wheels 
Diameter of truck wheels 
Rigid wheel-base 
Total wheel-base 


^8 inches. 
16 inches. 
4 ft. 8 in. 
8 ft. 3 in. 


30 inches. 
18 inches. 
5 ft. in. 
8 ft. 9 in. 


33 inches. 
20 inches. 
4 ft. 6 in. 
9 ft. 3 in. 


33 inches. 
20 inches 
4 ft. 6 in. 
9 ft. 3 in. 


Length over all 
Height over all 
Total weight in working order 
Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on two -wheel radial -bar 
truck 
Capacity of saddle tank 
Weight per yard of lightest steel 
T rail advised 


15 ft. 6 in. 
9 ft. 5 in. 
19,000 Ib. 
14,000 Ib. 

5,000 Ib. 
200 gals. 

16 to 20 Ib 


16 ft. in. 
9 ft. 9 in. 
23,000 Ib. 
17,000 Ib. 

60001b. 
2.!,0 gals. 

23 Ib 


17 ft. 6 in. 
10 ft. in. 
28,000 Ib. 
2L500 Ib. 

6.500 Ib. 
325 gals 

30 Ib 


17 ft 6 in. 
10 ft. in. 
3l,5001b. 
24,000 Ib. 

7,500 Ib. 
400 gals. 

30 Ib 












Hauling capacity on a lev- 
el, in tons of 2,OOO Ib... 


350 tons. 


425 tons. 


525 tons. 


625 tons. 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. -Refer to page 4-6 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work motors should be used at one-half to 
two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion 
is advised. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 92 to 94. 



PITTSBUEGH, PENNA. 



43 



BACK-TRUCK MOTOR. 

(WITH SADDLE TANK.) 

This design may be built with pilots, or with dash-boards, or without 
either ; and with or without side-flaps, as preferred. 

For a more complete description of construction and details, and for 
practical hints for operating our motors, see pages 61 to 66. 




(WITH PILOTS, WITHOUT SIDE-FLAPS.) 



( diameter 




10 inches. 
16 inches. 
36 inches. 
22 inches. 
5 ft. 3 in. 
11 ft. 3 in. 
19 ft. in. 
10 ft. 3 in. 
SoOOOlb. 
28.000 Ib. 
7,000 Ib. 
500 gals. 
30 Ib. 


12 inches. 
18 inches. 
40 inches. 
24 inches 
5 ft. 9 in. 
11 ft. 9 in. 
19 ft. 6 in. 
11 ft Oin. 
43,000 Ib. 
35,000 Ib. 
8,000 Ib. 
750 gals. 
35 Ib. 


14 inches. 
20 inches. 
44 inches. 
26 inches. 
6 ft. 3 in. 
13 ft. in. 
21 ft. in. 
11 ft. 3 in. 
54.000 Ib. 
44,000 Ib. 
10,000 Ib. 
900 gals. 
40 Ib. 


Cylinders ] JJJJJe 


Diameter of driving wheels. 
Diameter of truck wheels 







Rigid wheel-base 




Total wheel-base 




Length over all 








Total weight in working order 
Weight on driving wheels 
Weight on two-wheel radial-bai 
Capacity of saddle tank 






r truck 




<r. 


Weight per yard of lightest steel T rail advis 


Hauling capacity on a level, in 
tons of 2,OOO Ib 


700 tons. 


900 tons. 


1,100 tons. 


- 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work motors should be used at one-half or 
two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion is 
advised. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on page 95. 



44 



//. K. PORTER & CO., 



BACK TRUCK MOTOR. 

(WITH REAR TANK.) 

This design may be built with pilots, or with dash-boards or without 
either ; and with or without side-flaps, as preferred. 

For a more complete description of construction and details, and for 
practical hints for operating our motors, see pages 61 to 66. 




(WITH PILOTS AND SIDE-FLAPS.) 



i diameter 


7 inches 


8 inches 


9 inches 10 inches 10 inches 


12 inches 


14 inches 


Cylinders- 
( stroke 


12 inches 


14 inches 


14 inches 


14 inches 


16 inches 


18 inches 


20 inches 


Diameter of driviDg wheels. . 


28 inches 


30 inches 


33 inches 


36 inches 


36 inches 


40 inches 


44 inches 


Diameter of truck wheels 


16 inches 


18 inches 


20 inches 


22 inches 


22 inches 


24 inches 


26 inches 


Rigid wheel-base 


4 ft. 8 in. 


5 ft. in. 


5 ft. 3 in. 


5 ft. 3 in. 


5 ft. 3 in. 


5 ft. 9 in. 


6 ft. 3 in. 


Total wheel-base 


8 ft. 5 in. 


8 ft. 9 in. 


lOft.Oin. lOft.Oin. 


10 ft. 7 in. 


14 ft. in. 


15 ft. in. 


Length over all (including 
















pilots or dashboards) 


18 ft. in. 


19 ft. 3 in. 


22 ft. 10 in 23 ft. 11 in 


25 ft. 10 in 


27ft. 4 in. 


29 ft. in. 


H ' ht 11 


9 ft. 7 in. 


9 ft. 10 in. 


lOft.Oin. 


10ft. 2 in. 


10ft. Sin. 


11 ft. 2 in. 


11 ft. 3 in. 


Weight in working order 


20,000 lb. 


23,000 lb. 


28,000 lb. 


31,000 lb. 


36,000 lb. 


44,000 lb. 


f4,000 lb. 


Weight on driving wheels 


13,000 lb. 


15,000 lb. 


19,000 lb. 


22,000 lb. 


25,000 lb. 


32 000 lb. 


40,000 lb. 


Weight on two-wheel radial- 
















bar truck 


7,000 lb. 


8,000 lb. 


9,000 lb. 


9,000 lb. 


11,000 lb. 


12,000 lb. 


14,000 lb. 


Water capacity of rear tank . 


150 gals. 


200 gals. 


300 gals. 


350 gals. 


400 gals. 


500 gals. 


f 00 gals. 


Weight per yard of lightest 
















steel T rail advised 


16 lb. 


20 to 25 lb 


25 lb. 


30 lb. 


30 lb. 


35 lb. 


40 lb. 


Hauling capacity on a lev- 
















el, in tons of 2.OOO lb. .. 


300 tons. 


375 tons. 


475 tons. 


575 tons. 


650 tons. 


850 tons. 


1,000 tons 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table II., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work motors should be used at one-half or 
two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion is 
advised. 

For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on pages 94 and 95. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



45 



DOUBLE .ENDER MOTOR, 

(WITH PONY TRUCK EACH END, AND SADDLE-TANK.) 

This design may be built with pilots, or with dashboards, or without 
either ; and with or without side-flaps as preferred. The position of 
the tank on the boiler is necessary for a proper distribution of weight. 
This design is especially intended for fast speed. 

For a more complete description of construction and details, and for 
practical hinls for operating our motors, see pages 61 to 66. 




Diameter of driving wheels 

Diameter of truck wheel 

Rigid wheel-base 

Total wheel-base 

Length over all, including pilots. 

Height overall 

Total weight in working order. . . 

Weight on driving wheels 

Weight on two trucks 

Capacity of saddle tank 

Weight per yard of lightest steel 
Trailadvised 



8 inches. 
14 inches 
1 30 to 33 in. 
! 16 to 18 in. 
i 5 ft. in. 
ISft.Oin. 
M ft. in. 
I 9 ft. 5 in. 
24,000 Ib. 
15,000 Ib. 
i 9,000 Ib. 
i 2cOgals. 

20 Ib. 



Hauling capacity on a 
level, in tons of 2.OOO 
Ib... 



I 9 inches 
14 inches. 
33 to 36 in. 
18to20in. 

5ft. 9 in 
i 15 ft. 9 in 
i27ft.0in. 

9 ft. 9 in 
30,000 Ib. 
19,000 Ib. 
ll.OOOlb. 

325 gals. 

25 Ib. 



450 tons. 



10 inches. 
16 inches. 
40 to 44 in. 
22to24in. 
6 ft. 6 in. 
18 ft. 6 in. 
32 ft. iu. 
10 ft. in. 
40.000 Ib. 



14.000 Ib. 
500 gals. 

30 Ib. 



12 inches 14 inches. 
18 inches. 20 inches. 
44 inches. 43 inches. 
24 inches. 26 inches. 

6ft. 9 in. 7 ft. in. 
20 ft. in. 21 ft. in. 
34 ft, in. 36 ft. 6 in. 
11 ft. Oin. 11 ft. 3 in. 
50,000 Ib. , 58,000 Ib. 
aB.OOOlb. 40,000 Ib. 
17.000 Ib. 18,000 Ib. 

750 gals. 900 gals. 



35 Ib. 



650 tons. 800 tons. 



40 Ib. 



1,000 tons 



To compute the hauling capacity on any practicable grade, refer to 
Table I., page 47. 

NOTE. Refer to page 46 for explanation of hauling capac- 
ity; for regular work motors should be used at one-half or 
two-thirds of their full capacity, and the lesser proportion 
is advised. 



For actual performances, see WORKING REPORTS on page 94. 



46 H. K. PORTER & CO., 



HAULING CAPACITY EXPLAINED. 

The number of tons given as the hauling capacity of 

GUARANTEED each locomotive is not the amount of freight it can 

CAPACIT haul, but is ihe-total weight of the heaviest train, in- 

: ' eluding the weight of the cars and of their loads, 

CONDITIONS, which we will guarantee the locomotive to start and 
haul in addition to the locomotive itself (and its tender), 
on straight track in good condition ; the cars are to be in good order, 
and of such construction as not to cause unusual friction. The rate of 
speed is not supposed to be excessive, but only such as the locomotive 
can attain while doing its best work ; this may be from 5 to 15 miles per 
hour, according to the design of the locomotive. Over-loaded or empty 
cars are harder to haul than a train of the same total weight made up 
of properly loaded cars ; mine cars, especially those with loose wheels, 
are also hard to haul. 

The level mentioned is supposed to be absolute, 
LEVELS. which is almost unattainable in practice, and we there- 

fore advise that in selecting an engine for work on 
a so-called "level" road, the capacity of the engine on a 5 or 10 feet 
per mile grade be taken. 

The regular work of a locomotive should not exceed 
DAILY WORK, one-half to two-thirds of its full capacity. This allow- 
ance is advisable for the best economy of operation to 
provide a surplus of power for special occasions, and to cover the im- 
perfections of track and rolling-stock as found in average practice. 

On short grades, where it is not necessary to start 
FAVORABLE the train on the grade, a locomotive can be regularly 
CONDITIONS. used to g od economy at its full capacity, and often 
at considerably over its estimated capacity. In such 
cases the train is taken up the grade by its momentum and the locomo- 
tive only helps to keep it in motion. Grades one quarter of a mile long, 
when favorably situated, may be thus overcome. 

For passenger service the resistance of speed becomes 

SPEED. an important element, but no exact rule can be given 

that will apply to all cases. For very high speeds it 

may be best not to haul trains of more than one-third or one-half of the 

full capacity at slow speeds. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



47 



TABLES FOR COMPUTING HAULING CAPACITY ON GRADES. 

to be used in connection with the hauling capacity on a level given for 
each locomotive on pages 4 to 45. 

In these tables 100 per cent, stands for the hauling capacity on a level. 
Opposite each grade is given the proper percentage to denote the haul- 
ing capacity on that grade. '(For fuller explanation, see examples on 
following pages.) 



TABLE I. 

FOR SADDLE TANK LOCOMOTIVES. 



GRADES. 



PERCENTAGES. 



On a level the hauling 

capacity is 100 per cent. 

1 foot per mile 94 



2 feet 

I 

B 

I 

10 
IB 

n 

25 

s* 

B 

10 
IB 

50 



95 
100 



110 
120 
131 
132 
140 
150 
158/3 

lixr 

170 

180 



190 
200 



250 
2>4 

275 

300 

316ft 

3-45 

350 

375 

400 

450 

500 



n 

88 

78 
69 

64 

54 

47 

42 

40 

. .. 37 

33 

. 30 



25 

24 

22 

21 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

14 

13^ 

18 

12 

11 

10% 

10 



TABLE II. 

FOR LOCOMOTIVES WITH TENDER. 



GRADES. PERCENTAGES. 

On a level the hauling 
capacity is 100 per cent. 
1 foot per mile 94 
2 feet " 90 
3 " " Sfi ' 


5 " " 

8 " " 


78 
69 


i 

M 

(I 

M 


10 " 
15 " ' 
20 ' 
25 l 4 
26ft ' ' .. 
30 l 
35 ' " 


64 
54 
46 
41 
39 
36 
32 


40 ' 
45 ' " 


27 


50 ' l 
52ft ' 
55 ' * 
60 ' l 


. 25 

24 
23 
21 


65 ' 
70 " 


20 
18 


75 " 
80 " 
85 " 
90 " 
95 " 
100 " " 
105ft " " . . 
110 u " 
120 " 
130 " ' 
132 " l 
140 M 
150 " 
158ft u * 
160 " ' . . 
170 " " 
180 || || 

190 " .1 
200 " 
211ft" " 


17 


16 
15 
14 
13 
12 

.'' ;..'.'." 10 
9 


7^ 


...'.'.'.'.'. 5 


225 ' " 
250 ' " 
264 l " 
275 * 


3 


300 g | || 


2 


350 " " 
375 " 
400 " 





48 H. K. PORTER & CO., 



DIRECTIONS FOR USING THE PRECEDING TABLES. 



I. To compute how many tons a locomotive can haul up a grade. 

With the description and illustration of each locomotive, pages 4 to 45, 
is given, in tons of 2,000 Ibs., its hauling capacity on a level with a refer- 
ence to Table I. for saddle-tank locomotives, or to Table II, for locomo- 
tives with tender. Referring to the proper table, find the grade, and note 
the percentage given for it. This percentage of the hauling capacity on 
a level will be the number of tons which the locomotive can haul up the 
grade. 

EXAMPLE I. What is the hauling capacity up a grade of 300 feet per mile of the 
9x 14 cylinders locomotive, page 26 ? 

Page 26 gives the hauling capacity on a level for this locomotive 550 tons. Table 
I. gives 4 as the percentage for a 300 feet grade. Four and one-half per cent, of 550 
gives (disregarding fractions) 25 tons as the hauling capacity of this locomotive on a 
300 feet grade. 

EXAMPLE II. How much can the 12x16 cylinders locomotive, page 16, pull up a 
grade at 50 feet per mile ? 

Page 16 states the hauling capacity on a level at 800 tons. Table II. gives 25 as the 
percentage for a 50 feet grade, and 25 per cent of 800 is 200 tons, the hauling capac- 
ity on a 50 feet grade. 

II. To select a locomotive of suitable power for any required work. 

Add 50 or 100 per cent, to the regular work to be done, according to 
the margin of surplus power desired and for allowance for imperfections 
of track, cars, etc. (See explanation on page 46.) Refer to Table I. or 
Table II., as the case might be, for the percentage for the given grade. 
The regular work to be done, as above increased, will then be this per- 
centage of the locomotive's hauling capacity on a level ; and the capacity 
on a level is found by multiplying by 100, and dividing by the rate of 
percentage. The locomotive may then be selected frojn the catalogue 
according to the nature of the service and the hauling capacity on a level 
given for each locomotive. 

EXAMPLE. It is desired to haul a load of 150 tons of cars and lading regularly up a 
grade of 50 feet per mile. What is the smallest saddle-tank locomotive advisable ? 

Adding 50 to 100 per cent, to 150 tons gives 225 to 300 tons. Table I. states 26 as 
the percentage for a 50 feet grade ; 225 multiplied by 100 and divided by 26 gives 
866 tons, or 300 multiplied by 100 and divided by 26 gives 1,154 tons. A locomo- 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 49 

tive of 866 to 1,154 tons capacity on a level is thus indicated, and the catalogue 
gives a choice between page 24, 12 x 18 cylinders ; page 23, 12x18 cylinders ; and 
page 21, 12 x 18 cylinders ; and it might also be noted that if the load or grade could 
be slightly reduced, or if the grade were so situated that it could be to a consider- 
able extent overcome by the impetus of the train, a 10x16 cylinders locomotive 
would be available. 

MEMORANDA. These tables may also be used, when the hauling capacity of a 
locomotive on a given grade is known, to compute its hauling capacity on greater 
or less grades. 

Also when a locomotive's capacity on a given grade or on a level is known, to com- 
pute the steepest grade up which it can haul any desired practicable load. 

When an elevation is to be overcome it is often possi- 
LOCATING bte to secure the greatest economy of operation by 
GRADES. retaining an easy gradient as long as possible and 
then introducing a steep grade, which may be over- 
come by the momentum of the train ; or the train may be divided on 
the grade, or an extra locomotive may be used as a pusher. 

On very steep grades, say over 300 feet per mile, 
EXCESSIVE a we t or slippery rail, or very hard running cars, or 
GRADES. other difficulty, may reduce the load an engine can 
haul in greater proportion than on less grades. It is 
possible to haul light loads up 600 feet per mile grade with our locomo- 
tives ; but, from the above reasons, and also on account of the difficulty 
of controling the engine and train coming down, about 450 feet is about 
as steep for long grades as is usually practicable. For very heavy 
grades, engines should be specially designed. 



Attention is also called to the Table on page 50 which 
will show at a glance without requiring any calcula- 
NEXT PAGE. ti n the power of locomotives of different weights on 
all practicable grades. This table, although not abso- 
lutely exact, is very nearly correct and very convenient. 



50 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



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PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 51 



SPECIAL CAUTION. 

In using the opposite Table it must be borne in mind that locomotives 
ought not to be worked regularly at over one-half to three-fourths of 
their full power according to circumstances ; also that for saddle-tank 
locomotives it is safest to reckon the driving weight with the tank about 
half full ; also tender must be counted as a part of the train, and to be 
exact in case of engines with trucks the weight on the truck should be 
deducted (on this basis some designs could not ascend the steepest grades 
even without any train). The weight of train is given in tons of 2,000 Ibs. , 
and includes the weight of cars and their loads. The friction of cars is 
not to exceed 8 pounds per ton ; the cylinder power and size of driving 
wheels are supposed to be properly proportioned to the weight on driving 
wheels ; the track is to be straight and in good order, and the speed no 
faster than the engine can haul its heaviest loads. The weight on driving 
wheels is the total on all driving wheels, and the Table applies to 4 or 6 
driver locomotives. 

PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF USE OF THE OPPOSITE TABLE. 
Weights on driving wheels are noted at the top of the table, and grades 
from level to 11 per cent, at the left hand. 

EXAMPLE I. How much can a locomotive with 20,000 Ibs. on drivers haul up 
grades of 4 per 100 * At the intersection of the 20,000 Ib. column and the 4 per cent, 
grade line is the figure 35, which is the weight in tons of 2,000 Ibs. (including cars 
and loads both) that the locomotive can haul up the grade, and say 18 to 27 tons 
would be right for daily work, or less for a locomotive with separate tender. 

EXAMPLE II. How much weight on the driving wheels must a locomotive have to 
haul a train of 40 tons up a grade of 5 per cent ? The number of tons on the 5 per 
cent, line nearest to 40 is 41 tons, which calls for 32,000 Ibs. on the driving wheels ; 
and for constant work on a long grade, working the engine at about two-thirds to 
three-fourths of its full power, there should be, say, 40,000 to 46,000 Ibs. on the driving 
wheels. 

EXAMPLE HI. If it is desired to haul 50 tons, with a locomotive having 12,000 Ibs. 
on its driving wheels, how steep a grade is possible ? The Table gives the answer, 
If per cent., or 92^ feet per mile, the 50 tons being found at the intersection of the 
If per cent, grade line with the 12,000 Ibs. column. But for regular work a long 
grade of about 1 per cent, would be the steepest usually advisable. 



52 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



DIFFERENT METHODS OF DESIGNATING THE SAME GRADES. 



Engineer's 
Method. 

Y in 100 or J4 of 1 per cent. 
J^ in 100 or ^ of 1 " 


% in 100 or % of 1 " 


1 


in 100 


or 


1 


iy% 


in 100 


or 


1^ " 


2 


in 100 


or 


2 


2^ 


in 100 


or 


2y 2 " 


3 


in 100 


or 


3 


334 


in 100 


or 


&A " 


4 


in 100 


or 


4 


41^ 


in 100 


or 


4J " 


5 


in 100 


or 


5 , " 


5^ 


in 100 


or 


5^ " 


6 


in 10D 


or 


6 " 


6^ 


in 100 


or 


6J^ " 


7 


in 100 


or 


7 


71^ 


in 100 


or 


7^ " 


8 


in 100 


or 


8 


8*4 


in 100 


or 


8^ " 


9 


in 100 


or 


9 


9J4 


in 100 


or 


91^ " 


10 


in 100 


or 


10 



English 
Method. 

1 in 400 
1 in 200 
1 in 150 
1 in 100 
1 in 66g 
1 in 50 
1 in 40 
1 in 33i 
1 in 28* 
1 in 25 
1 in 22| 
1 in 20 
1 in 18 T 2 i 
1 in 16 
1 in 15ft 
14? 



American 
R. R. Method. 

13ft feet per mile 



39ft 
52ft 
79ft 

105ft 

132 



12* 



= 1 in 
1 in 
1 in 
1 in 11^ 
1 in lli 
1 in lOftj 

= 1 in 10 



184ft 

211ft 

237ft 

264 

290ft 

316ft 

343ft 

369ft 

396 

422ft 

448ft 

475ft 

501ft 

528 



To reduce grades stated in per cent, (or feet rise per 100 feet of length) 
to feet per mile, multiply by 52 T ^. 

EXAMPLE. 3 per 100 (or 3#) is equivalent to 3x52ft=158 r % feet per mile. 

To reduce grades stated in the English method (or one foot rise in a 
certain number of feet in length), divide 5,280 by the given number. 

EXAMPLE. A grade of 1 in 20 is equivalent to 5,280 divided by 20=264 feet per mile. 

To reduce grades irregularly stated, as for instance, a rise of so many 
inches in a number of yards or rods or feet to a grade stated in feet per 
mile, multiply the rise in inches by 5,280, and divide this amount by 
the length of the grade in inches. 

EXAMPLE. A grade of 5 inches in 1 rods, multiply 5,280 by 5=26,400 ; divide by 
297 (the number of inches in 1* rods)=88ft feet per mile. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 53 



EASY METHOD OF MEASURING HEAVY GRADES. 

Of course, the proper way of determining grades is by surveyor's 
instruments. But where the grade varies many times in a distance of a 
few hundred feet, it is quite as important to know the maximum as the 
average grade. In such cases it is sufficiently accurate to use a straight 
edge 100 inches long, and levelling it with an ordinary spirit level, to 
measure in inches from bottom of straight edge to top of rail. This 
gives the grade in per cent., which can be reduced to feet per mile by 
multiplying by 52.8. A few trials in different places will readily deter- 
mine the ruling grades. On very low grades this method is not practi- 
cable, but it is useful on most of the roads where our special service 
engines are running, the grades varying from 1 to 10 per 100. 



CURVES. 

THE RESISTANCE OF CUKVES is very considerable. The less the radius 
of the curve, and the greater the length of the curved track occupied 
by the train, the greater the resistance. The length of wheel-bases of 
engine and cars, the condition of rolling stock and of the track, and the 
rate of speed, all influence the resistance, and there is no formula that 
will apply to all cases. 

R E DUCTI ON In practice, many engineers compensate for curves 
OF GRADES on grades at the rate of two one hundredth* of a foot 
ON CURVED in each hundred feet for each degree of curvature, 
TRACK. the grade being stated in feet per hundred. 

EXAMPLE. If a 20-degree curve comes on a grade of five feet per hundred 
the grade is reduced 20xdhj=& of one foot, which, subtracted from the original 
grade of 5 feet per 100, leaves 4& feet per 100 as the compensated grade on the 
curve ; or, in other words, a grade of 6 feet in the hundred coming on a straight 
track offers the same resistance as a grade of 4 T 6 5 feet in the hundred coming on a 
20-degree curve. 

Where the grade is stated in feet per mile the equivalent reduction 
for each degree of curvature is l T (j-<y feet per mile. 

EXAMPLE. A 20-degree curve coming on a grade of 261 feet per mile, the grade 
is reduced 20X1x^=211% feet, which subtracted from 264, leaves 242^ feet per 
mile as the compensated grade on the curved track. 

This rule makes no distinction between narrow and wide gauge, and 
it is doubtful if it applies to very steep grades or very sharp curves. 
Mr. Nicholas S. Davis informs us that good results were obtained on 
the Arizona Copper Co.'s railroad of 20 inches gauge, with 4 per 100 
grades and 40-degree curves, by compensating at the rate of -^ of a 
foot per degree of curvature. 



54 H. K. PORTER & CO., 



In usual railroad practice sharper curves are used on narrow gauge 
than on wide gauge, because the difference in length of the inner and 
outer rails on curves on the same degree is not quite so great, and also 
because the wheel bases of locomotives and of car-trucks are less. 

The track should be spread about one- fourth inch on 

THE GAUGE easy curves, and on very short curves about an inch 

MUST BE to as much as the tread of wheels will permit. Good 

WIDENED ON results were obtained on the Arizona Copper Co.'s 20- 

CURVES m ch gauge railroad by widening the track -^ inch for 

each 2)^ degrees of curvature, making the track on 

40 degree curve 21 inches gauge. This is probably about right for most 

roads using our smaller locomotives and cars of short- wheel base on very 

sharp curves. 

Our smaller special service locomotives on narrow 
gauge haul mine cars around irregular curves of only 
28 feet radius, and they have done daily service around 
curves of 20 and even 17 feet radius on wide gauge. 
Our narrow gauge freight and passenger engines are 
at work on curves of 75 feet radius and upwards ; our 
heavier four driver special service locomotives, on wide gauge, shift cars 
on curves as short as 70 feet radius. Our larger sizes of motors do 
good work around curves of less than 60 and 50 feet radius. While our 
locomotives are capable of conforming to such extremely short cur- 
vature, short or irregular curves are to be avoided, since one bad curve 
reduces the load that an engine can haul, and bad curves are very destruc- 
tive to rails and rolling-stock. It is economical to invest more money and 
get a curve of longer radius, instead of losing continuously in operating 
expenses. If, as in the case of .mountain and mining roads, a sharp curve 
is necessary, the rail should be bent to the right curvature. This can 
be done by a portable rail bender, or by a jack and clamps. 




RULES FOR MEASURING THE RADIUS OF A RAILROAD CURVE. 

Stretch a string, say 20 feet long, or longer if the 
curve is not a sharp one, across the curve correspond- 
A B c ing to the line from A to C in the diagram. Then 

measure from B the centre of the line A-C, and at right angles with it, to 
the rail at D. 

Multiply the distance A to B, or one half the length of the string, in 
inches by itself; measure the distance D to B in inches, and multiply 
it by itself. Add these two products and divide the sum by twice the 
distance from B to D, measured exactly in inches and fractional parts of 
inches. This will give the radius of the curve in inches. 

It may be more convenient to use a straight edge instead of a string. 
Care must be taken to have the ends of the string or straight edge touch 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



55 



the same part of the rail as is taken in measuring the distance from the 
centre. If the string touches the bottom of the rail flange at each end, 
and the centre measurement is made to the rail head, the result will not 
be correct. 

In practice it will be found best to make trials on different parts of 
the curve to allow for irregularities. 

EXAMPLE. Let A-C be a 20 feet string ; half the distance, or A-B, is then 10 feet, 
or 120 inches. Suppose B-D is found on measurement to be 3 inches. Then 120 
multiplied by 120 is 14,400, and 3 multiplied by 3 is 9 ; 14,400 added to 9 is 14,409, 
which, divided by twice 3, or 6, equals 2,40l> inches, or 200 feet 1*4 inches, which is 
the radius of the curve. 



The formula is thus stated, 



A B 2 + B D 



2 BD 



=R 



Or applied to the above example, 



120 



2X 



=2,401^ in. =200 ft. 



DEGREES OF CURVATURE. 



The simplest way of designating railroad curves is by giving the 
length of the radius (distance from centre to outside of circle) in feet. 
Civil engineers designate curves by degrees, a one degree (1) curve 
having a radius of 5,730 feet, a 2 curve a radius one half as much, a 3 
curve one third, and other degrees a proportionate fraction of 5,730 feet, 
as shown by the following table : 



Degrees. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



Feet 
Radius. 



Degrees. 



5,730 


18 


2,865 j 19 


1,910 


20 


1,432 


21 


1,146 


22 


955 


23 


818 


24 


716 I 25 


636 


26 


573 


27 


521 


28 


477 


29 


441 


30 


409 
382 


31 
32 


358 
337 


33 



Feet 
Radius. 

318 
301 
286 
273 
260 



212 

206 
197 
191 
185 
179 
174 
169 



Degrees. 



Feet 
Radius. 

163 
159 
155 
150 
147 
143 
139 
136 
133 
130 
127 
125 
122 
119 
117 
114 



56 H. K. POETER & CO., 

ELEVATION OF OUTER RAIL ON CURVES. 

No rule can be given that will apply to all cases for elevating the out- 
side rail on curves. The gauge of track and kind of traffic, and design 
of locomotives and cars, all need to be taken into consideration, as well 
as the rate of speed. 

On many standard gauge roads good results have been attained by 
elevating the outer rail one quarter inch for each degree of curvature. 
The corresponding elevation for 36 inches gauge would be about one 
eighth of an inch for each degree of curvature. For the comparatively 
slow speed at which most of our special service and freight locomotives 
are generally run, and especially on the extremely sharp curves com- 
monly used, a very much less elevation of the outer rail will be sufficient, 
and an elevation of 4 to 7 inches for standard gauge, or of 2 to 5 inches 
for narrow gauge, is probably about the extreme limit needed even on 
curves of 30 to 80 degrees (or say 200 to 75 feet radius). 



RAILS. 

We would generally advise for our light locomotives the ordinary ~[ 
section of steel rail. 

The lightest weight of steel rails advisable for the 

VE RY LIGHT \)Qst economy for each size and style of our locomo- 

RAILS NOT tives is given in the descriptive text with the illustra- 

tions. The same weight of iron rails can be used, but 

ECONOMICAL. nQt IQ gQ ^ QQ ^ ^vantage, an( j stee i ra j] s ^y tne j r 



greater durability and reduced price have driven iron rails out of the 
market. It is possible to use lighter rails than we have advised for our 
locomotives, but it is the best economy to use a rail heavier than is abso- 
lutely necessary. Light rails should be made with broad heads as 
possible, as a very narrow head wears grooves in the driving-wheel tires, 
We do not advise strap rails, as they require more expensive track, 
cost nearly the same as J rails of the same capacity, and are hard to keep 
in order, and dangerous on account of snake-heads. We have known 
of light T rails being laid on stringers, and successfully used, instead of 
heavier T rails on cross-ties. Reversed point spikes are required, and 
the stringers should be tied across at their top faces by cross pieces let 
in to ,prevent rolling or spreading of gauge. 

STREET For city streets, when T rails are not permitted, 

RAILS. probably the best rail is the Johnson rail made with 
a deep flange. 

WOODEN RAILS. 

We have built a number of locomotives to run on wood rails, for 
various gauges from 30 inches to 60 inches, for lumber-mills and other 
private operations, and also for narrow gauge railroads. We have thus 
had considerable experience with wooden rails of different patterns and of 
different kinds of wood. The best wood is maple, laid with the heart up ; 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 57 

SIZE OF hard pine is used in the South. The simplest form of 
WOOD RAILS, wooden rails is a stringer cut in 16 to 20 feet lengths, 
and of such cross section as the kind of wood or weight 
of engine requires. Five inches square is the size rail we would gen- 
erally advise, although 5 inches face by 7 inches depth is better. Four 
inches face by 6 inches depth will answer for our smaller engines, if the 
wood is good ; for large rails 4 feet between centers of cross ties will answer, 
and for lighter rails 2 to 3 feet between centres. When worn out on top 
the rail may be reversed, and when again worn out may be used for 
ties. The ties are easiest fitted and laid if made uniform, and of about 
the same size lumber as the rails ; 6 inches square 
TIES FOR i s heavy enough. Any cheap lumber not especially 
WOOD RAILS, liable to decay will do. Ordinary hewn ties may be 
used, but not being uniform are less convenient for 
cutting out recesses for rails. They should be at least 3 feet longer than 
the width of the track between rails. The ties must be cut out accu- 
rately and uniformly to receive the rails. The recesses should be about 
3 inches deep, and be at the top face of the tie one inch, and at the 
bottom of the recess 1| inch wider than the rail. The inner faces of 
the recesses are perpendicular, and the distance between them is the 
gauge of the track. The bottom of the recess should be level, and ties 
laid welt to afford proper bearing for the stringer. 
WEDGES. Wedges made of any cheap wood, or better, of ends 
of stuff left from rails, are driven on the outside of 
rails. They are made of right shape to fit the space left ; the reason for 
making this space wider at the bottom than at the top is to keep the 
wedges from working up, so that the rail may be held securely in place. 

Although our locomotives, especially the designs on pages 20, 39, 35 

and 37, are well adapted to wooden rails, we advise steel rails as more 

desirable and cheaper except in first cost. Wooden 

DISADVA : ra -j g waste p 0weT> are very slippery in wet or freezing 

TAGES weather, require constant repairs, and necessitate very 

OF WOODEN slow speed. 

BAILS. I D some cases it may be best to use them until they 

earn enough to pay for steel rails, and in the Southern 
lumber districts where the grades and loads are light and the tracks 
shifted frequently, it may be well enough to use wooden rails. A light 
logging locomotive is a very great improvement over animal power 
whether on steel or wooden rails. 

Pole roads are, in our opinion, unfit for operating 
POLE ROADS by steam. Our experience has been that any one 
UNFIT FOR having enough business to justify the use of a locomo- 
STEAM tive cannot afford to cripple his whole plant for the 

LOGGING sake of saving the cost of a track, and that anyone 
who decides to use a pole road will want a locomo- 
tive too cheap to be worth having. 



58 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



GAUGE OF TRACK, 




THE GAUGES 

WE 
BUILD FOR. 



The gauge of a railroad is tlie distance in the clear between the rails. 
Our locomotives are built to suit the gauge of track allowing the proper 
amount of side-play between the wheel-flanges and the rails. A " three 
foot gauge locomotive" is one adapted to a track with rails just 36 inches 
apart, and the wheels measure 35)^ inches between flanges. (For the 
necessity of widening the track on sharp curves see page 54.) 

We build our locomotives for all gauges of track 
within reasonable limits, and have built for over 50 
different gauges varying from 20 to 72 inches. While 
we are just as well prepared to build for wide as for 
narrow gauges, we do not build any but Light Locomo- 
tives and our largest cylinders are 14 inches diameter. We have built 
locomotives with 9^ inches diameter cylinders for 20 inches gauge, 12 
inches cylinders for 30 inches gauge, and 7 inches cylinders for 72 inches 
gauge. 

Correspondents frequently request "prices for both 
narrow and wide gauge engines," and sometimes for 
24, 30, 36, 48 and 56^ inches gauge, under the 
impression that the narrower the gauge, the cheaper 
the locomotive. A very wide gauge is undesirable 
for a very small locomotive, and an extremely nairow 
gauge involves modifications in design which increase 
the cost of all but our smallest sizes ;_ but except for such extreme cases 
there is no difference in pi*ice between a wide gauge and a narrow gauge 
locomotive of the same design and same size of cylinders. 

The metre gauge (39% inches) is common in foreign 
countries. There are a number of roads at home and 
abroad of 42 inches gauge. Plantation tramways in 
Spanish countries and steel mill tracks in this country 
are often 30 inches gauge. For copper, silver and 
other mines 20 to 30 inches gauge is often adapted to 
save cost in under-ground work, and similarly narrow 
gauges are often desirable throughout the yards and buildings of manu- 
factories. Many operators of bituminous coal mines prefer a gauge of 
40 to 44 inches, because it admits a desirable shape and capacity of mine 
cars. Street railways are quite commonly 60 or 62^ inches gauge and 
no change of gauge is needed when animal power is abandoned for our 
Steam Motors. Odd gauges of track are frequent for private and local 
roads, because some whim or trivial reason determined the gauge at the 



COST OF 
NARROW 

GAUGE 

AND OF 

WIDE GAUGE 

LOCOMOTIVES 



SPECIAL 

GAUGES 

USED FOR 

SPECIAL 
PURPOSES. 




PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 59 

start. In some instances the saving of a few dollars in buying second- 
hand equipment of odd gauge has resulted in an extensive system of odd 
gauge railway and a very great subsequent outlay to change the gauge. 

The "narrower gauge" of 24 inches has been recom- 
mended as the best gauge for short roads for freight 
and passenger traffic and is entirely practicable. But 
except for some mill or mine tracks the 24 inches 
gauge has no advantages and has some disadvantages 
as compared with the 36 inches gauge. Theie is no 
SYSTEMS saving in cost of construction or operation, no gain in 
efficiency, and the power and the variety of design 
practicable for locomotives are limited by very narrow gauges. There 
are also various "no-gauge," "peg leg," "saddle- bag " and similar systems 
requiring si ill greater modifications and without any recommendations 
that we know of unless their novelty will induce curious people to invest 
in them. 

While our locomotives for all gauges of track are 

ODD GAUGES thoroughly efficient, and we have overcome all mechani- 

U N D ES I R- ca l difficulties in adapting them to very narrow gauges, 

very wide gauges, and all odd intermediate gauges, we 

ABLE believe, unless there are exceptional reasons to the 

contrary, that our customers in planning new roads will serve their own 

interests best by adopting either the regular narrow gauge of 36 inches 

or the standard wide gauge of 56% or 57 inches. Equipments of odd 

gauge cannot be obtained or disposed of promptly. 



COMPARATIVE MERITS OF NARROW AND OF WIDE GAUGE. 

The principal advantages claimed for narrow gauges are adaptation for 
sharp curves and steep grades, lighter rails and equipment, and cheap- 
ness in cost of construction, also better proportion of paying load, less 
wear on rolling stock, and cheapness of operating. 

Two surveys are often made for a proposed road, 

EFFECT OF one f or an expensive wide gauge with heavy rails and 

GAUGE ON rolling stock over easy grades and curves, and the 
CURVES AND other for a cheap narrow gauge with light rails and 
GRADES. rolling stock over steep grades and sharp curves. 
Over very mountainous country with heavy cuts ami 
fills, and especially with a great amount of hill-side work, the excess of 
cost of grading due to the diiferencein gauge of track may be an import- 
ant item. But over ordinary country the same grades and curves, and 
rails and equipment of the same weight may be used for the wide gauge. 
Our estimates of cost per mile of track on pages 83 and 84 apply to 
either gauge. 

The narrow gauge admits sharper curves, because the wider the gauge 



60 H. K. PORTER & CO., 

the greater the amount of slipping of wheels in passing curves ; but prac- 
tically this is too small to consider unless on curves too sharp to be 
desirable on either gauge for ordinary purposes. Sharper curves are 
commoner on narrow gauge because smaller locomotives are generally 
used. 

The resistance of gravity and the power of a locomotive on grades are 
just the same, no matter what the gauge of track maybe, but some 
features of usual practice make a slight difference. The wide gauge in- 
creases the weight enough to be appreciable in the case of very small 
locomotives ; short wheel-bases on wide gauge have more tendency to 
crowd against the rail ; a train made up of a few large wide gauge cars 
has less friction and may be easier to haul than a narrow gauge train of 
the same weight made up of a larger number of lighter cars, but the 
narrow gauge train is easier to start by taking up the slack. Our figures 
of hauling capacity apply equally well to all gauges, and other condi- 
tions than gauge of track will determine in each case the most convenient 
loads for daily work. 

When the narrow gauge system was first agitated it 

GAUGE OF was ar g uec i that wide gauge cars could not be built as 

TRACK AND light as narrow gauge and carry the same load. Wide 

PAYING gauge cars have since been re-modeled so that in actual 

LOADS practice there is no marked difference between the two 

gauges in the proportion of dead to paying weight. 

The principal objections urged against narrow gauge are : top-heavy 
rolling stock with limited speed and power ; and transfer of freight and 
passengers. 

Our narrow-gauge locomotives, both with tender and 

GAUGE AND with g^ie-tank, are not in the least top-heavy, and 

SPEED AND have frequently attained speeds of 30, 40, and even 

POWER nearly 60 miles per hour. If more power is needed 

than about 18 inches diameter of cylinder, the wide 

gauge is preferable, though not necessary. 

Transfer of freight and passengers may in some 

cases be unobjectionable, and may be desirable even 

BREAKING when not made necessary by difference in gauge. 

GAUGE. There are a number of successful systems for transfer 

of freight without breaking bulk. But the need of 

interchange of cars, and the advantage of a uniform gauge, have led to 

the widening of many narrow-gauge roads, both " feeder " lines and 

competing lines, even where the traffic was easily within the capacity of 

the narrow gauge. 

The question of gauge of track is of much less practical importance 
than the question of 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 61 

LIGHT RAILROADS, 

Our locomotive* are the best motive power for a very great variety of 
roads where a heavy expensive road would be impracticable, mechanic- 
ally or financially, and where reliable service is desired at a moderate 
cost of construction and operation. When the work to be done is within 
the limits of a 16 to 25-lb. rail the narrow gauge may often be preferable, 
as in the case of many contractor's tracks ; plantation, coal and ore 
roads ; and some logging roads and light motor lines. When anything 
heavier than a 30-lb. rail is needed, as may often be the case with con- 
tractor's, logging, suburban and motor roads, the standard gauge is 
usually more desirable. For a very large proportion of roads for which 
our light locomotives are used, there is but little choice between narrow 
and wide gauge except as special conditions may exist in each case. All 
the advantages of the narrow gauge system are also secured by light 
railroads of standard gauge, but when connection is made with trunk 
lines a 30-lb. rail is necessary to carry the cars, and usually nothing 
smaller than a 10 by 16 cylinders locomotive is advisable. 



STREET RAILWAYS, AND RAPID TRANSIT AND "DUMMY" MOTOR LINES. 

We offer our noiseless Steam Motors, described on pages 32, 33, 42, 43, 
44 and 45, as affording, in great variety of size and design, the least ex- 
pensive and most desirable motive power, both as a substitute for animal 
power on city streets and for many local passenger purposes for which 
animal power is wholly inadequate. 

Our motors are simple and durable in construction, and without objec- 
tionable or complicated devices. The general design and quality of 
work and material are in no respect inferior to the best locomotive prac- 
DETAILS OF ^ ce> no CO S S > gears, upright boilers, or gas pipes for 
conveying steam being used. The patent noiseless 
CONSTRUC- exhaust used is effective and durable and placed where 
TION OF OUR it is not in the way or liable to be injured or get out of 
order ; it converts the usual intermittent noisy action 

of the steam into a continuous, quiet flow, without 

back pressure. The expensive, cumbersome condensing arrangement 
used on foreign " tram way's engines " is found unnecessary in our own 
more practical country, as with the patent exhaust, no steam is notice- 
able under ordinary working conditions. Smoke is avoided by the use 
of anthracite coal or coke fuel. About 8 to 12 pounds of anthracite coal 
per mile is usually sufficient, although in some cases with heavy loads 
and steep grades, 15 to 20 pounds per mile is used, and very much de- 
pends on the engineer. Crude petroleum fuel can be used with special 
appliances, but in addition to mechanical difficulties it is too expensive. 
The machinery of our motors is enclosed in a cab so that they resemble 
horse-cars or railway-cars so nearly that no difference is detected at the 



62 H K. PORTER & CO., 



first glance. The motor cabs are substantially built and handsomely 
finished, and roomy and conveniently designed ; glass sash is arranged 
to drop all around, and at the front end reaches to the floor ; hinged trap 
doors in the cab floor give opportunity for oiling the machinery in 
motion ; and the fuel bunker is of ample capacity and handily placed. 
In all our motors the engineer has a good look out and full control of all 
valves and levers so that the motor can be stopped or started instantly. 

The motors without pony trucks, described on pages 
BEST DE- 32 and 33, are best adapted to slow speed, as is usual 
SIGNS FOR where the road is wholly on city streets. The smaller 
CITY STREETS sizes, say 7 x 12 and 8x 14 cylinders, are ample for haul- 
AND SLOW ing on ordinary grades one to four cars : and the larger 
SPEED AND sizes are desirable for hauling a number of cars up 
STEEP steep grades. The rear-tank design described on page 
GRADE. 32 has the dome, engineer's seat, valves, levers, etc., 
placed centrally and gives the most perfect outlook 
in all directions. The saddle-tank design, page 33, more nearly resem- 
bles a street-car, and permits the shortest possible length over all, and 
the position of the tank over the boiler does not interfere to any 
objectionable extent with the engineer's outlook, except for the largest 
sizes for which a fireman would generally be required. 

The motors with back- truck, described on pages 42, 
BEST DE- 43 and 44, are best adapted to work requiring a com- 
SIGNS FOR bination of speed and power. The small sizes are 
POWER AND useful for hauling a limited number of street-cars 
SPEED where, for part of the way at least, there is an oppor- 

COMBINED tunity for considerable speed, and the larger sizes are 
desirable for suburban roads, hauling longer trains 
and heavier cars. The designs described on pages 42 and 43 carry the 
water in a saddle-tank over the driving wheels, and thus have the great- 
est power that can be secured in combination with the easy motion and 
speed afforded by the pony truck. This position of the tank is not ob- 
jectionable in the smaller sizes, but interferes with the engineer's outlook 
for the larger sizes enough to make a fireman desirable. The design 
described on page 44 gives a perft ct outlook in all directions, with a 
dome, engineer's seat, levers and valves placed centrally, with a very 
roomy, conveniently arranged cab, and is the most popular style. It is 
not quite so powerful and on extremely steep grades not so desirable as a 
saddle-tank motor. 

The motor described on page 45 has a pony truck at each end which 
makes a saddle-tank necessary to get sufficient weight on the driving 
wheels. It is not the best design for very heavy loads and very steep grades, 
but is the fastest possible motor, and very well liked by roads using it. 

For all of our motors with pony trucks we use a 

SHARP special patented truck which enables them to pass 

CURVES curves very easily, and to work constantly on curves 

that most railroad engineers would pronounce imprac- 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



ticable. Our 12 x 18 cylinders motors with backtrack are at work on' 
quarter circles of considerably less than 50 feet radius. 

Our Motors are constructed to run equally well in either direction, and 
with entire control and good outlook by the engineer running forward or 
backward. 

The best rail for our motors is a steel T rail of suitable weight, as this 
allows the usual depth of wheel flange and width of 
BEST RAIL. wheel tread, and dirt and stones cannot rest upon it. 
When city ordinances forbid a T rail the best rail is 
the Johnson street-rail, and the deeper patterns are preferable. We make 
the tires of our motors to suit any special rail that may be used. 
Various "combined" motors and cars, in which the car and engine is 
contained in tLe same machine, have been tried but 
COMBINED have proved deficient, and are now almost out of date, 
M OTO RS. an d superseded by the separate motor. The combined 
car and motor has the merit of taking up the least pos- 
sible room. But this arrangement cramps the machinery, compels the 
objectionable vertical boiler and a wheel base too long for ordinary street 
curves, makes the car too rough to ride in or else too shaky for the 
machinery, and annoys passengers with the vibratory motion of the 
engine, and the heat of the boiler and the smell of oil. Thus the car and 
engine are both spoiled, and, in addition, any repairs to either lays both up. 
Various machines operated by compressed air, or by 
COMPRESSED amm onia and other volatile chemicals; also steam 
AIR, SODA. motors, condensing and using the steam over again, or 
FIRELESS arranged for charging with fresh steam, or for renew- 
AND OTHER m S tne steam by hot soda reservoirs; also coiled 
MOTORS spring motors, thermo-motors, and many other in- 
genious contrivances have been invented, and an- 
nounced as the coming motor about to revolutionize railroads, and then 
have been abandoned as failures. Thus far only two adaptations of 
mechanical power for street railroads have any real claim to be consid- 
ered rivals of steam motors, viz., electric systems and cable systems. 

The latest and, perhaps, the most popular substitute 
ELECTRIC f or di rec t steam power is electricity. There are a 
MOTORS. great many systems of electric railroads with overhead 
"trollies" and dangling wires, or with "conduits" 
for underground wires ; also storage batteries carried on the motor. 
These roads have proved the mechanical possibility of hauling street cars 
up very steep grades and around sharp curves, and at a good rate of 
speed by electricity, but have at the same time made evident the great 
and, perhaps, insurmountable difficulties of satisfactory and economical 
continuous operation. The storage battery seems to be the most desir- 
able electric system, because it avoids obstructions in the streets and dan- 
gerous naked wires ; but even when enough battery power is used to 
make the weight undesirable the power is limited, except at the risk of 
its speedy destruction. Until some absolutely new discovery, the expense 



64 H. K. PORTER & CO., 

' of the storage battery makes it only an interesting experiment without 
any commercial or practical utility. Except in a few cases where water 
power is utilized, electricity for street use must cost more than the direct 
application of steam. 

The reasons for this are the excessive cost of maintenance and of inter- 
est on the permanent plant, and also the immense waste inseparable from 
every conversion of power into electricity and back again into power; 
because, whatever else electricity may be, it is not power, but only a means 
of transmission of power. Financial reasons are in our opinion decisive 
against electricity, but, in addition, is the more important matter of 
danger to life and property. Almost every American street is already 
encumbered with a network of wires for telegraph, telephone, fire-alarm, 
or police-patrol purposes, and for electric lighting. The naked wires 
used for every practicable electric motor system may at any moment, by 
mere contact with any other wire or conductor, divert a current fatal to 
life and destructive to property. On account of frequent groundings 
and other mishaps peculiar to electricity, travel by electric motors is liable 
to indefinite stoppage at any time without notice, and there is already 
some demand for steam motors as a reliable reserve power for electric- 
roads. Unless apparent impossibilities are accomplished, we believe that 
electric motors, which, because of the popular demand for novelty and 
readiness to believe anything not understood, are often easy to introduce, 
will, by calling attention to the need of some cheap and reliable power, 
increase the sale of steam motors. 

The cable road is the only system which in any considerable number 
of cases is preferable to steam motors. Its positive application of power 
saves the room needed by any separate motor depend- 
CABLE ing on rail adhesion, and also is adequate for a very 

ROADS. heavy business, and inclines impracticable for other 
systems can be ascended at fast speed, and any extra 
rush of travel can be accommodated promptly by merely attaching more 
cars to the "grip" car. If the business is large enough and the distance 
not too long, these advantages may overbalance the immense cost of the 
cable system, the astonishing waste of power, the rapid wear of the cable, 
the danger of accidents, the damage to the streets by slot-rails and man- 
holes, and the stoppage of the whole line inevitable in case of accidents 
or. repairs for any part of the line. Our steam motors are valuable to 
cable roads for use on extensions and also as a reserve ready to use in 
case of need. 

The separate steam motor is not only the least ob- 
DECISIVE jectionable, most serviceable and least expensive system 
ADVANTAGES for street railroads, but in one most important respect 
OF STEAM it differs from all other systems and is preferable to 
MOTORS them. There is no outlay for any battery of station- 
ary boilers, engines, power house, dynamos, compres- 
sors, overhead poles, wires, underground conduits, cables, man-holes, 
slot rails, torn-up streets, and no interference with telephone, electric 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



65 



light, and telegraph wires, sewers, gas and water pipes, etc. The steam 
motor only needs to be fired up and run, and this can be done without 
interrupting horse-car service. The "experiment" only involves the 
difference between the cost price of one motor and what it can be sold 
for as a second-hand machine, instead of many thousands or hundreds of 
thousands of dollars. 

The principal obstacle, and in many cases a suffi- 
cient one to the use of the steam motor on city streets, 
is one which applies in greater measure to other appli- 
cations of mechanical power. Where horse power in 
crowded streets is fast enough the greater speed of 
steam cannot be used ; and when horse-power is able 
to haul any loads to be hauled the greater power of 
steam is of no advantage. In such cases, although the steam motor is 
more economical and the outlay but little greater, conservatism will ad- 
here to old and well-tried methods and be slow to abandon horse-power. 
As compared with other systems the steam motor 
makes no more noise than most horse cars, cable roads 
or electric motors, and in general appearance is no 
more liable to objection. The principal obstacle to be 
overcome is popular prejudice, and the best way to 
overcome this is to run a steam motor a short time. 




PRINCIPAL 

OBJECTION 

TO STEAM 

MOTORS. 



SUBURBAN RAILWAYS AND MOTOR LINES; HOTEL AND 
EXCURSION ROADS. 

The movement of city populations toward their suburbs is in an in- 
creasing ratio every year. Horse-power is too tedious, 
fails to meet the requirements, and is too expensive. 
Any advantages that cable or electric roads are sup- 
posed to have for short runs disappear as the length 
of the road is increased. The utility of the steam 
motor is on the contrary more evident as the run grows 
longer. When city ordinances and ignorance prevent 
the use of steam motors on the city streets we advise 
their use for the out-of-town part of the run. Our motors are useful and 
money-making on extensions of electric or cable roads where the great 
expense of these systems and the amount of business offered would not 
justify these systems. Land companies may, by building a "rapid 
transit " line at a moderate cost, put their property on 
the market at great profit, and have, besides, a good 
paying investment in the road. Proprietors of sum- 
mer resorts, watering-places, hotels, excursion and 
picnic grounds, often find their business limited by 
the difficulty of transporting any large number of people in a short time. 



STEAM 
MOTORS 
WITHOUT 
COMPETI- 
TION FOR 
SUBURBAN 
SERVICE. 



MOTOR LINES 

AND REAL 

ESTATE. 



66 3. K. PORTER & CO., 

This difficulty can be solved satisfactorily by a light-equipped " dummy " 
line. In most cases where the season is short or the business irregular, 
sometimes very light and sometimes very great, Ihe best economy is to 
lay a rather light rail, and not to use motors excessively large but of 
medium power, and to have one or two motors and a proportionate num- 
ber of cars in reserve for special occasions. Roads of this character are 
not only profitable to the owners, but are also a great public benefit. 
Suburban roads need not cost, exclusive of franchise, land and buildings, 
over $3,000.00 to $6,000.00 per mile, and will earn as much as the 
suburban trains of existing main lines which have cost five or ten times 
as much. Even if suburban roads made no profits, they would often be 
worth their cost by securing rates and facilities independent of foreign or 
hostile managements. The gauge of track may be 36 or 56^ inches as 
circumstances may make the more desirable. For a great number of 
purposes unenclosed motors are more desirable than enclosed motors, and 
we are prepared to substitute cabs similar to those of ordinary locomo- 
tives, and at a considerable reduction in price. 

Motor roads are often built by men who are not personally familiar 
with the details of railroad machinery and management, but who can 
see that such roads are paying investments. We wish to urge upon 
capitalists and organizers of new motor lines the necessity of having not 
only good motors, good cars and good track, but also of having some 
competent, experienced railroad man, who will know 
how to keep everything in running order. The lack 
of such a man may mean failure and is sure to involve 
a loss of more money than his salary \\ ould amount 
to. On small roads running but one or two motors 
he may also serve as engineer. On motor roads the service is always 
severe ; mud, dust, sharp curves, uneven grades and constant stopping 
and starting demand good care of machinery ; small engines on short 
runs with frequent stops are expected to make a greater mileage than 
is made by large locomotives on long roads. It is very short-sighted 
policy for a motor road, after demanding and getting the very hand- 
somest and most efficient machinery with all the latest improved appli- 
ances, to let their motors and cars lie out in the weather without protec- 
tion or care. It is a very costly economy to hire the cheapest engineers, 
or to let the track get out of line and sunk into the mud or to jump 
trains over rails at crossings. 

SPECIAL SERVICE. 

Iron furnaces are usually so located that fuel, limestone and ore, 

FURNACE or meta * or cinder, must be moved to and from dif- 

AND CINDER ferent P arts of tn e works. Here the cost of wagon 

LOCOMOTIVES naunn g on dirt roads is so excessive, that a rail 

track, either wide or narrow gauge, as may be most 

convenient, is essential to economy and successful competition. 




PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 67 

the work is more than three animals and drivers can do (see pages 
77 and 78), a special service locomotive (see pages 26, 34, 38, 22, 40 and 
41) is required, and will very soon pay for itself. 

At Bessemer steel works these special service locomotives are used for 
hauling hot ingots from the converter, and have proved so useful that 




This cut shows one of our 9x 14 cylinders locomotives on the cinder bank of the 
Chestnut Hill Iron Ore Co., Columbia, Pa., and unloading cinder cars by the patent 
steam attachment of Mr. Jerome L. Boyer, Reading, Pa. (See page 125 for work- 
ing report and description.) 

they are now an established part of the plant. It is also practicable to 
haul molten metal a distance of several miles from blast furnaces to the 

converting-house, instead of casting and re-melting 
STEEL-WORKS the pig iron. Our smaller special service locomotives 
LOCOMOTIVES. are a ^ so useful in hauling hot blooms to the rolls in 

rail-mills and other large steel-mills. For hauling 
ingots, hot metal, cinder, etc.. the locomotive cabs and other parts usually 
of wood are made of iron to endure the exposure to the intense heat. 
When the locomotive works inside of the mill under cover the cab may 
be omitted and a long coupling bar used. (See pages 40 and 41). It is 
well to select a larger locomotive than absolutely necessar}' for hauling 
hot loads, as the cars are heavy and clumsy, and the oil often burned off 
of the car journals. 

Our locomotives are used for handling fluid metal, ingots, blooms, etc., 
through the following large steel works : North Chicago Rolling Mill, 
Union Iron and Steel Co., Joliet Steel Co., St. Louis Ore and Steel Co., 
Pennsylvania Steel Co., Scranton Steel Co., North Branch Steel Co., 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



Midvale Steel Works, Otis Steel Works, The Edgar Thomson Works, 
and Homestead Works of Messrs. Carnegie, Phipps & Co., Ltd., Linden 
Steel Co., Jones & Laughlins, Ltd., Pittsburgh Steel Casting Co., Messrs. 
Miller, Metcalf & Parkin, Messrs. Oliver Brothers & Phillips, and at 
over fifty iron-mills and blast furnaces. 

Many large manufacturing establishments have found it the best 
economy to use our special service locomotives for moving raw and fin- 
ished material through their works. When a track of 24 to 36 inches 
gauge is used for connecting the different departments, our smaller sizes 
of special service locomotives described on pages 26, 38, and 34 are often- 
est used. When a standard gauge track is adopted, and usual freight cars 
moved, larger locomotives are desirable, either the larger sizes of pages 



26, 38 and 34 or some of the sizes on page 24. These 
locomotives are used at copper and silver smelting 
works, iron, gold, silver, copper, fire-clay and phos- 
phate mines ; cement, lime and building-stone 
quarries ; at brick -yards, and at manufactories of 
cars, car-wheels, tires, plate-glass, sewing-machine?, 
mowing and reaping machines, threshing machines, wooden ware, etc., 
and are adapted to many other purposes, of which no detailed account 
can be given. 



GREAT 
VARIETJLP.F 
MANUFACTUR- 
ERS USING OUR 
LOCOMOTIVES. 




RAILROAD SHIFTING. 

Engines unnecessarily heavy are often used for shifting where our 
larger sizes, described on pages 24, 21, or 23, would do the work as well, 
and at less cost. These engines are very compact and powerful, start 
their trains quickly, and work on steeper grades and 
sharper curves than ordinary railroad shifting engines. 
The process of shifting cars by animals, or by a gang 
of men with pinch bars, is a most inconvenient extrav- 
agance, as is -also any dependence on railroad com- 
panies for occasional use of shifting engines. In such cases, without 
counting the gain in time, comfort and convenience, it does not take long 
for our locomotives to save their cost. 



ECONOMYOF 
OUR SHIFT- 
ING ENGINES. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



CONTRACTOR'S WORK, 

Contractors who have any considerable quantity of rock, mud, or 
earth to move, can do it most economically by our special service loco- 
motives, such as are described on pages 20 to 26 and 34 and 38. 

The gauge of track for contractor's tram-ways may be narrow or wide 
as most convenient. Narrow gauge is best where the plant needs to be 
shifted often, nnd some contractors prefer 30 or even 24 inches gauge for 
this reason, and use very small locomotives and cars. Usually there is 
no advantage in anything narrower than 36 inches gauge. When stand- 
ard gauge cars belonging to the railroad can be used for grading to good 
advantage, 10x16 cylinders is usually the smallest size locomotive desir- 
able. Otten when narrow gauge is used, the heavy rails intended for the 
finished railroad may be used instead of lighter rails. 
ECONOMY OF Qur contractor > s locomotives, or two if the 



CONTRACTOR'S haul is long or grades steep, will keep a steam shovel 
LOCOMOTIVES busy. ^ P avs lo use a locomotive even for hauls as 
1 short as 500 or 1000 feet. Compared with animal 
power, our locomotives save their cost many times over ; compared with 
other locomotives, they are efficient and durable and will stand hard usage 
24 hours per day constant use six days per "week with reasonable care. 
In case of accidents our locomotives are only laid up, if at all, long 
enough for a telegram to reach our shops and supplies expressed to reach 
destination. 

Our contractor's locomotives have proved useful in the construction of 
the following large works : The United States Government Works at 
Muscle Shoals, Yaquina Bay, Columbia River Cascade Locks, and the 
Mississippi Rapids near Keokuk ; The Panama Canal ; the Hoosac, 
Musconetcong, Pittsburgh Junction, Hoboken, Baltimore and other tun- 
nels ; the Northern Pacific Railroad, both in the laying of the first track 
and in the completion of the Cascade Tunnel ; the Montclair Railway ; 
Canada Southern R. R. ; West Shore R. R. ; South Pennsylvania R. R.; 
Illinois Central New Line ; the improvement of the Pennsylvania, Balti- 
more & Ohio, and Shore Line railroads ; the deepening (and subsequently 
the filling) of the Providence Cove, the filling of the South Boston Flats 
and of the Potomac Flats ; the Hiland Reservoir at Pittsburgh, the new 
Reservoir at Washington, and the Croton Aqueduct. Reports of the 
workings of some of these locomotives may be found on pages 110 to 125. 



70 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



COAL ROADS. 

When coal is sent to market by water it is generally best to run the 
mine cars to the water, and sort and ship the coal in one operation. 
Where coal is shipped by rail it is usually cheaper to extend the mine 
*road than to build a branch of the wide-gauge road several miles to the 
mine. The excess of the cost of the wide gauge over the narrow gauge, on 
which the mine cars are hauled by a light locomotive, like those shown 
on pages 22 or 26, would often be enough to pay for the entire rolling- 




This cut shows the Tipple for shipping bituminous coal by river. The coal is 
hauled from the foot of the incline or from the mine by a locomotive and is dumped 
into flat boats. The nut coal and lump coal are separated by screens and loaded and 
weighed into different boats. When coal is shipped by rail the flat cars are loaded 
by a similar arrangement. 



stock of the latter. The best results are obtained when loaded cars go 
down and empty cars go up grade. When the locomotive has brought 
its loaded train to the tipple or breaker, it should find an empty train 
ready, and when this empty train has been brought back to the mine it 
should be exchanged for another loaded train without delay. At each 
terminus there should be two tracks, one for empty and one for loaded 
trains, and the grade should be so adjusted that the cars may be handled 
by gravity. The exercise of a little foresight in the location and details 
of such a road, with reference to economy of handling and shipping, 
may, with little or no addition to the outlay, save a large amount every 
year. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



71 




COAL MINES. 

In adapting our locomotives to inside use in mines difficulties were 
encountered and overcome. The grades and curves are usually exces- 
sive, and the rails light and often wet ; considerable power is required in 
a very contracted space ; dry steam must be obtained with low steam- 
room ; even where the head-room is not enough for a man to stand 
upright, the locomotive must be provided with a comfortable place for 
the engineer, with everything placed conveniently within his reach and 
control. 

The dimensions of openings and weights of rail required for different 
sizes and styles of mine locomotives are given, with the illustrations and 
descriptive text on pages 28, and 30. We advise the larger openings as 
giving the best and most economical results. 

In hauling under ground, as in outside hauling, animals cannot com- 
pete with locomotives in economy and efficiency. The table of compara- 
tive cost is given on page 77. 

The principal objection against mine locomotives is, that the smoke 
is injurious to the miners. Its best answer is an actual test properly 
made. Experience makes mine locomotives popular with miners, since, 
if annoyance is felt from the smoke, the ventilation of the mine is shown 
to be defective, and the mine operator, to secure to himself the advantages 
and saving obtained by the use of the locomotive, must secure to the 
miners a proper supply of pure air. Thus the locomotive not only has 
done no harm, but has pointed out an existing danger, which was the 
more hurtful because imperceptible. Bituminous coal is better than 
anthracite, and coke is worse than either. Even where mines are badly 
ventilated a mine locomotive does good, rather than harm, since by its 
passage through the entry, a draught is made, which expels the foul air 
and smoke together. It is only necessary to supply the mine rooms with 
fresh air independently of the main entry, which is the best and simplest 
method of ventilation, whether a locomotive is used or not. As no two 
mines are exactly alike the arrangements of details of ventilation will vary ; 
but the one thing essential is to use the entry where the locomotive works 



72 H. K. PORTER & CO., 

for the out-current of air and not for the in-current. A furnace or a 
fan may be used as may be most convenient. For tunnels open at each 
end natural ventilation is usually sufficient. 

Our mine locomotives are in use in the anthracite and the bituminous 
regions of Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Ohio, 
Kentucky, Georgia, Tennessee, Illinois, Iowa and Washington Territory. 
Some of them have been in constant use for ten years two and a half 
miles underground and very seldom coming out into daylight. 

Reports of some of our mine locomotives are given on pages 126 to 
131, and the different sizes and designs are described on pages 28, 30, and 
81. 



COKE OVENS. 

The manufacture of coke from bituminous coal for use in blast 
furnaces, iron and steel mills, and also in the form of crushed coke for 
use in dwellings, has developed so that the ovens can no longer be 
charged in the old-fashioned way by cars drawn by mules. Our light 
locomotives described on page 41 are especially constructed for this 
work, having sheet-iron cabs for protecting the engineer, and they haul 
one to five larries at a trip, charging 100 to 300 ovens per day, according 
to the size of the locomotive and the grades and distance. The gauge of 
track is usually 56% inches, and very sharp curves are often necessary. 
The double-row system of ovens is the most convenient, with the track 
laid between the ovens and with larries with a spout on each side ; but 
the old system with the track over the centre of the ovens can be used. 
It is cheapest to use a heavy rail of 50 to 60 pounds per yard, bearing on 
pillars, and not to have the weight of the locomotive and larries rest 
on the ovens. When heavy rails are used the driving wheels of the 
locomotive may be solid chilled iron, which are cheaper than steel- tired 
wheels, and do not require turning down, and for these reasons may be 
preferable. 

A locomotive with 7x12 cylinders is generally amply powerful for 
coke-oven service, and often a 6 x 10 cylinders locomotive is sufficient. 
The locomotive may also be utilized for shifting the usual railroad cars 
for loading. In some cases it may be desirable to use the same gauge of 
track on the ovens as for the mine cars and haul the mine cars as well as 
the larries. 

A few reports of coke-oven locomotives are given on pages 110 to 125. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



73 



LOGGING RAILROADS, 

Steam railroads with proper locomotive and cars, furnish the cheapest 
and most reliable plan for moving logs from a timber track to the water. 
They are equally desirable in many cases for hauling logs to the mill or 
to a main line of railroad. 

The best gauge for most logging roads is 56^ inches, because wide 
gauge cars can have extra long bolsters and be loaded heavily without 
piling the logs high. For light logging roads with rails of 16 to 20 Ibs. 
per yard, the narrow gauge of 36 inches may be preferable. Odd gauges 
are to be avoided, as their rolling-stock cannot be bought or disposed of 
to as good advantage as for regular gauges. 




This cut represents a 7 by 12 cylinders locomotive hauling 17,650 feet of logs on 10 
cars, 8 miles in 33 minutes, on a 20 Ib. per yard iron rail. 



The best rail is steel, of 16 to 40 pounds per yard weight, according to 
the work to be done. Instead of earthwork fills or trestles, imperfect and 
unmarketable logs may be built into cribwork for crossing swamps and 
other depressions. The rails are then laid on stringers, and reverse point 
spikes are used ; the stringers are tied across at their top faces to prevent 
their rolling, as explained on page 56. Our experience with wooden 
rails is also given on pages 56 and 57. 

A logging road should be equipped with enough cars for two trains, 
one to be loading while the other is on the road, so that the locomotive 
need not wait for cars to be loaded. The unloading can be done so 
quickly as to cause no delay. 



74 



H. K. PORTER & CO. 



Our locomotives are well adapted to this service. Those described on 
pages 26, 34, and 38 are often used, as they are the simplest and least 
expensive. The back-truck styles on pages 20, 21 and 39 are generally 
most desirable as they can make the greatest number of trips and also 
haul heavy loads. Pages 22 and 23 are preferable for excessively steep 
grades where power rather than speed is required. Pages 8, 12, 16 and 
36 are desirable for extra long niEs. 

Logging railroads are generally so built that the service is very severe, 
and there are few places where it is so poor economy to use cheaply- con- 
structed locomotives. A large force of men and an expensive invest- 




ment may be rendered useless by the attempt to save a few hundred 
dollars in motive-power. Good mules are preferable to poor steam 
machines. 

The cost of hauling logs by our locomotives, includ- 
ing interest and depreciation, and all expenses, varies 
from about 30 cents to 60 cents per 1,000 feet, accord- 
ing to the length and general condition of the road, 
and the amount of business. The cost of hauling by 
horses with sleds over snow, or iced tracks, is usually 
$1 to $2.50 per 1,000 feet, allowing two to three trips per day. A 
lumberman dependent on sledding is liable to have his operations 
entirely suspended by a mild winter, and his money locked up for a 



HAULING 
LOGS. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 75 

year at least. Meantime, his logs are depreciating in value, and are unsal- 
able when prices are the highest and the demand greatest. By building 
and operating a logging railroad, however, he may still reach the season's 
market, and afterwards carry logs all the year round. When prices are 
high the output can be doubled, without additional investment, by run- 
ning 24 hours per day ; or, on the other hand, when prices are low, and 
operations therefore suspended, all expenses are stopped. When timber 
has been injured by fire or windfall, it may be brought to market before 
it can be destroyed by decay or boring worms by building a logging 
railroad. The entire outlay for a steam logging road with steel rails is 
about 50 cents or $1 for each 1,000 feet of lumber readily reached by it. 
When the tract is cut off, the road may be moved to another tract at 
slight expense Under reasonably favorable conditions a logging rail- 
road more than pays for itself inside of a year. The investment is a 
paying one, even if the timber reached is cut off, and the road moved to 
open up another tract every year. Tracts, before considered of little 
value and inaccessible, may be utilized and worked to make even more 
profitable returns in proportion to the investment than lands held at a 
higher figure because more favorably located. Logging railroads solve 
the problem also of the economical and profitable production of lumber, 
where otherwise the cost of moving, as it increases with the length of 
the haul, leaves after each year's cut a diminishing margin of profit. 
This low cost of transportation enables "culled" or poorer grades of 
logs which by any other method of logging would be left to rot in the 
woods to be marketed with profit, and logs can be sold with a handsome 
margin at what are cost figures to operators hauling by animals. 

The advantages and economy of logging locomotives are by no means 
confined to immense operations. While our larger locomotives can put 
in 1,000,000 feet per week on a haul of 5 to 10 miles, our smaller 
locomotives are just as economical and almost as indispensable for any 
mill cutting say 15,000 to 20,000 feet daily and hauling logs or lumber 
over a half mile. 

Our locomotives are hauling logs in Pennsylvania, the Southern 
Atlantic and Gulf States, the Northern Lake States, and on the Pacific 
coast. The total extent of territory annually denuded of timber hauled 
by locomotives built by us is about 350 square miles. 

Our locomotives are also used for sorting and piling lumber in lumber 
yards, and for hauling sawdust and waste from the mill to a refuse 
burner. 

WORKING REPORTS are given on pages 132 to 147. 



76 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 




PLANTATION RAILROADS. 

In the West Indies, Mexico, Sandwich Islands, South America, and in 
our own Southern States, our light locomotives are used on plantations 
for carrying sugar-cane from the fields to the crushing-mill, and for 
shipping sugar and molasses, and for receiving fuel and other supplies. 
The gauge of track is usually 30 or 36 inches, and the metre gauge is 
sometimes used. 

The service is peculiarly difficult in several respects, and demands 
locomotives well adapted to the requirements. The soil is usually very 
soft, and in the rainy season the rails are sometimes hidden by the mud ; a 
light or portable track is often used for convenience in moving the road in 
the fields ; the road follows the contour of the surface of the country, and 
the curves and grades are frequently excessive ; the climate is very hot and 
moist, and good engineers are not alway obtainable. The Plantation Loco- 
motives on pages 34, 35, 37 and 14 meet all these conflicting conditions, as 
they are light, compact and powerful, and with their weight well dis- 
tributed ; the different parts are strongly made to stand rough usage, and 
the cabs are open to secure the comfort of the engineer. If desired, 
greater power may be gained by carrying the water over the boiler (as 
shown on pages 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 38 and 39), but plantation owners 
generally prefer the rear tanks. Wood, coal, gas-house coke, or the 
refuse dry-pressed cane, may be used as fuel. 

Plantation locomotives are applicable to any large farming operations, 
and, with such modifications as the climate and the conditions of the 
service may require, are just as capable of saving time and money in the 
great wheat-fields of the Northwest as in the plantations of the tropics. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



77 



COMPARATIVE COST OF OPERATING ANIMALS AND LIGHT LOCOMOTIVES. 

The following calculations demonstrate that on an average where three 
animals and three drivers, or animals and drivers in different proportion, 
but at about the same daily expense, are used, it is cheaper to operate a 
light locomotive. From $5 to $6 per day, or $1,500 to $1,800 per year, 
is a reasonable allowance for the cost of operating a light locomotive, to 
take the place of 10 to 30 animals. It is not unusual for an engine to 
save its cost in less than a year. When, through strikes or dulness of 
trade, an engine is idle, it saves money as well as when it is busy ; only 
a few cents of white lead and tallow are needed for it, while mules, 
whether idle or not, must be fed. 



Cost per year of operating 3 mules and 3 drivers. 



Where Feed and Labor are at 


Low Prices. 


Average Prices. 


High Prices. 


3 mules 1 feed, harness, shoeing, 
care, etc., for 365 days, each 
per day ... 


@33^c. =$365.00 
@75c. = 675.00 
= 36.00 


@ 60c.= $657.00 
@ $1.25=1 ,125.00 
= 36.00 


@$1.00=$1,095.00 
@ 1.75= 1,575.00 
= 36.00 


3 drivers 1 wages, 300 days, each 
per day 


8 per cent, interest, mules 
worth $150 each. 




Total 


$1,076.00 


$1,818.00 


$2,706.00 





Cost per year of operating one of our light locomotives, 
capable of doing the work of 1 O to 3O mules or horses. 



Where Fuel and Labor are at 


Low Prices. 


Average Prices. 


High Prices. 


Fuel, 400 to 1,000 pounds coal, 
or ^ to % cord wood. Costs 
almost nothing at coal-mines, 
lumber mills, etc., per day . . 
Engineer's wages, 300 days, 
per day 


$30.00 

@ 20c.= 60.00 
$1 50 450 00 


$100.00 

@, $1.00= 300.00 
@ 2 25 675 00 


$200.00 

@ $3.00= 900.00 
@ 275= 82500 


Boy to switch, couple, etc 
Interest, 8 per cent., say 


60c.=180.00 
250.00 


@ 1.00= 300.00 
250.00 


@ 1.50= 450.00 
250.00 


Total 


$97000 


$1,625.00 


$2,625.00 











There are a number of items which must be considered in a fair com- 
parison of animals with locomotives, which vary too much with each 
individual case to be noted in the table given above. 

A locomotive makes so much quicker time than animals, that fewer 
cars are required to carry a greater daily total of tonnage. This effects 
a reduction in original investment that may nearly amount to the cost 
of the locomotive, and also reduces materially the running expenses, 



78 H. K. PORTER & CO., 

This reduction in the number of caj;s the engine, with quick trips, 
replacing a number of teams making slow trips reduces the number of 
turnouts needed. In one case one of our engines was mostly paid for by 
the sale of rails from extra track that was no longer of any use. 

The keeping up of a path between the rails for animals to work on, 
the renewing of ties worn out by constant tramping over them, is a 
vexatious expense avoided by the use of a locomotive. This item often 
amounts to one man's continuous time, or $1 to $2 per day. 

Even where a large sum is spent in keeping up a footway, the chance 
of accident and wear and tear of animals is greater, and the average 
useful life is less than that of a locomotive. 

The relative economy increases rapidly with the length of the road. 
On a track of a quarter of a mile or less in length, the locomotive, 
although much preferable, would not have so much advantage as on a 
road half a mile long. While it is almost impracticable to haul with 
mults much over half a dozen miles, freight can be hauled ten miles by 
the locomotive cheaper than by mules two or three miles. 

These incidental savings, which are not included in the table, will 
usually cover the additional cost if heavier rails are required, and also of 
any changes of grades, curves, mine headings, etc. , as may be advisable 
for the most economical use of the locomotive. 

We recommend that an engineer be also enough of a mechanic to do 
all light repairs and keep the locomotive in good order. With such a 
man, the item of repairs, unless the engine is over, worked, should not 
average for, say 20 years, over $50 to $100 per year. The amount of 
fuel used is also considerably dependent on the engineer. We believe a 
liberal salary to a good, competent engineer the best policy. Our system 
of standard templets enables us to express duplicate parts on telegraphic 
orders. (See page 1.) 

We believe that if parties who are doing hauling on tramways by 
animals will calculate for themselves the cost of operating, their own 
figures will show, more than ours, the advantages and economy of sub- 
stituting light locomotives. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 79 



WEIGHTS OF LOGS AND LUMBER. 

WEIGHT OF GREEN LOGS TO SCALE 1,000 FEET, BOARD MEASURE, 

Yellow Pine (Southern) :. .8,000 to 10,000 Ib. 

Norway Pine (Michigan) 7,000to 8,000 Ib. 

i off of stump 6,000 to 7,000 Ib. 

White Pine (Michigan) i outofwftter 7>oooto ^ m ^. 

White Pine (Pennsylvania), bark off 5,000 to 6,000 Ib. 

Hemlock (Pennsylvania), bark off 6,000 to 7,000 Ib. 

Four acres of water are required to store 1,000,000 feet of logs. 

WEIGHT OF 1,000 FEET OF LUMBER, BOARD MEASURE, 

Yellow or Norway Pine Dry, 3,000 Ib. ; Green, 5,000 Ib. 

White Pine Dry, 5,500 Ib. ; Green, 4,000 Ib. 

WEIGHT OF ONE CORD OF SEASONED WOOD, 128 CUBIC FEET PER CORD, 

Hickory or Sugar Maple 4,500 Ib. 

WhiteOak 3,850 Ib. 

Beech, Red Oak, or Black Oak 3,250 Ib. 

Poplar, Chestnut, or Elm 2,350 Ib. 

Pine (White or Norway) 2,000 Ib. 

Hemlock Bark, Dry (1 cord bark got from 1,500 feet logs) 2,200 Ib. 

MEMORANDUM. When wood is cut in 4 ft. lengths, a pile 4 ft. high and 8 ft. long con- 
tains one full cord of 128 cubic feet. Wood for locomotive fuel is cut in 2 feet 
lengths and a pile of 4 ft. high and 8 ft. long is reckoned as a locomotive cord. For 
our small locomotives wood should be cut about 18 inches long. The fuel reports of 
our wood-burning locomotives are given in locomotive cords of 64 cubic feet. 



TO FIND THE SIZE OF RAIL NEEDED FOR A LOCOMOTIVE. 

Multiply the number of tons (of 2,000 Ib.) on one driving wheel by 
ten, and the result is the number of pounds per yard of the lightest 
rail advisable. 

This rule is only approximate, and is subject to modification in 
practice. (NOTE. If, as is often the case with four-wheel-connected 
locomotives, the weight on front and back driving wheels is not the 
same, the heavier weight must be taken.) 



TO FIND THE NUMBER OF TONS OF RAIL PER MILE OF ROAD. 

Multiply weight of rail per yard by 11, and divide by 7. This does 
not include sidings, and a ton is reckoned at 2,240 pounds. 

EXAMPLE. The number of tons of 28 pounds per yard rail required for one mile 
is 11 x 28=308 ; divided by 7=44 tons. 

The number of tons of 2,000 pounds required per mile is very nearly 
1% times the weight per yard. 

EXAMPLE. 1% time gives 28 times 49 tons per mile required of 28 pounds rail. 
Rails are regularly sold by the ton of 2,240 pounds. 



80 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



TABLE OF TONS PER MILE REQUIRED OF RAILS OF FOLLOWING 
WEIGHTS PER YARD. 



Weight 


Tons of 2,240 Ib. 


Weight 


Tons of 2,240 Ib. 


per yard. 


per mile. 


per yard. 


per mile. 


16 Ib. 


25 tons, 320 Ib. 


35 Ib. 


55 tons, Ib. 


20 " 


31 " 960 " 


40 " 


62 " 1,920 " 


25 " 


39 " 640 " 


45 " 


70 " 1,600 " 


28 " 


44 " " 


56 " 


88 " " 


30 " 


47 " 320 " 


60 " 


94 " 640 " 



RAILROAD SPIKES, MADE BY DILWORTH, PORTER & CO., (LIMITED), 
PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



Size measured 
under head. 


Average number, 
per keg of 200 Ib. 


Ties 2 ft. between centres, 
4 spikes per tie, makes 
per mile. 


Rail used, weight 
per yard. 


5^x T B 


360 


5,870 Ib. = 29^ kegs. 


45 to 70 


5 X -$5 


400 


5,170 " = 26 


40 to 56 


5 x ^ 


450 


4,660 " = 23^ " 


a5 to 40 


4J^x % 


530 


3,960 " = 20 


28 to 35 


A y L 


600 


3,520 " =17% " 


24 to 35 


4L^ X T ? ff 


680 


3,110 " = 15)4 " 




4 x& 


720 


2,940 " 14% " 


[ 20 to 30 


3^3 x / B 


900 


2,350 " = 11% " 


j 


4 x% 


1,000 


2,090 " 10^ ll 


J- 16 to 25 


3J4 x % 


1,190 


1,780 " = 9 




3 x % 


1,240 


1,710 " = 8J4 " 


j- 16 to 20 


^ X% 


1,342 


1,575 " = 7% " 


12 to 16 


CROSS-TIES PER MILE, 


SPLICE JOINTS PER MILE, 


Centre to centre. Ties. 


2 bars and 4 bolts and nuts to each joint. 


\Y% feet. 3520 


Rails 20 feet long. 


528 joints. 


1% " 3017 


" 24 " 


440 


2 " 2640 


" 26 " " 


406 


2J4 " 2348 


" 28 " " 


378 


2^ " 2113 


" 30 " " 


352 



The length of rails as usually sold is 90 per cent. 30 feet long, and 10 per cent. 24 to 
28 feet long, requiring 357 splice joints per mile. 

Weights of splice joints vary according to their length, and also the size of bolts. 
The general shape of rails, as well as their weight per yard, also controls the weight 
of splice joints. Splice joints are sold both by the piece and by weight. 

The average weight of splice joints (complete with 2 bars and 4 bolts and nuts) is 
as follows : 

For rails of 16 to 20 Ib. per yard, each joint weighs 5 to 6 Ib. 

" 24 to 28 " " " " 6 to 8 " 

" " 30 to 35 " " 10 to 12 " 

" " 40 to 50 " " 12 to 16 " 

" 56 to 60 " " " " 18 to 24 " 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



xi 



WEIGHTS AND CAPACITIES OF CARS. 



* 


NARROW GAUGE. 


WIDE GAUGE. 




Weight of Weight of 
car. load. 


Weight of car. 


Weight of 
load. 


8-wheel flat cars 


8,500 Ib. 20,000 Ib. 


16,000 to 18 000 Ib. 


24,000 Ib. 




8,500 Ib. i 30,000 Ib. 


17,000 to 19,000 Ib. 


28,000 Ib. 








18,000 to 20,000 Ib. 


30,000 Ib. 








19,000 to 21,000 Ib. 


40,000 Ib. 








20,000 to 23,000 Ib. 


50,000 Ib. 








23,000 to 25,000 Ib. 


60,000 Ib. 


8 wheel box cars 


10,000 Ib. 


20,000 Ib 


19,000 to 20.000 Ib 


24,000 Ib. 




12,000 Ib. 


30,000 Ib. 


19,000 to 21, 000 Ib. 


30,000 Ib. 








20,000 to 24,000 Ib. 


40,000 Ib. 








26,000 to 28,000 Ib. 


50,000 Ib. 








28,000 to 30,000 Ib. 


60,000 Ib. 


4- wheel coal and ore cars. . . 


4,000 Ib. 10 000 Ib. 


7,000 Ib. 


16,000 Ib. 




6,000 Ib. 


12,000 Ib. 


9,000 Ib. 


20,000 Ib. 












8-wheel logging cars 


4,900 Ib. 


12.000 Ib. 


5,600 Ib. 


20.000 Ib. 




(1,500 ft. of 




(2,500ft of 




loss.) 




logs.) 


4-wheel logging cars 


2,500 to 
3,000 Ib. 


10,000 Ib. 
12,000 Ib. 


5,000 Ib. 
6,000 Ib. 


1 6,000 Ib. 
20,000 Ib. 


Passenger coaches 


20,000 to 1 46 to 
22..000 Ib. 64 passsngers. 


35,000 to 
44,000 Ib. 


50 to 

56 passengers. 




Coaches for motor lines, 










suburban railroads, etc. . . 


9,000 ro 


38 to 


10,000 to 


40 to 




10,000 Ib. 


40 passengers 


14,000 Ib. 


50 passengers 






seated; 




seated; 






75 to 




75 to 






lOOpassengers 
crowded. 




125passengers 
crowded. 


Open excursion coaches 


9,700 Ib. 


70 passengers. 


9,700 Ib. 


70 passengers. 






18,000 Ib. 


90 passengers. 


One-horse car (16 ft long) 




3,200 Ib. 
4,500 Ib. 
9,500 Ib. 


16 passengers. 
22 passengers. 
40 passengers. 


Two-horse car (23 ft. long). . 
8-wheel street car 















The average weight of a passenger is 133 Ibs., or 15 passengers per ton of 2,000 Ib. 



82 H. K. PORTER & CO., 



MISCELLANEOUS, 

A bushel of bituminous coal weighs 76 pounds, and contains 2,688 
cubic inches. 

A bushel of coke weighs 40 pounds. 

One acre of bituminous coal contains 1,600 tons of 2,240 pounds per 
foot of thickness of coal worked. Fifteen to 25 per cent, must be 
deducted for waste in mining. 

A cubic yard of loose earth weighs 2,200 to 2,600 pounds. 

A cubic yard of wet sand weighs 3,000 to 3,500 pounds. 

A cubic yard of broken rock weighs 2,600 to 3,000 pounds. 

Water weighs about 8% pounds per gallon, and one gallon contains 
231 cubic inches. 

One cubic foot contains almost exactly 7^ gallons. 

Cast iron weighs about 1 pound per 4 cubic inches. 

Wrought iron weighs about one pound per 3^ cubic inches. 

The circumference of a circle is about 3 times its diameter. 

One acre contains 43,560 square feet. 

A square of 208^ feet contains one acre = 43,560 square feet. 

A square of 147ff feet contains % acre = 21,780 square feet. 

A square of 104ff feet contains ^ acre = 10,890 square feet. 

One square mile contains 640 acres. 

To find the number of gallons in a circular tank multiply the diameter 
in feet by itself, then multiply by the depth in feet, then by 6, and from 
this sum deduct 2 per cent. 

EXAMPLE. A tank 14 feet diameter and 9 feet deep. 14x14 196x9 = 1764x6= 
10584 less 2# (= 210)= 10374 gallons. (This is very nearly exact.) 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 



ESTIMATES OF COST OF ONE MILE OF RAILROAD TRACK. 

Laid with steel rails weighing 16, 20, 25, 30, and 35 pounds per yard. 

The following estimates are for the track ready for rolling stock, not 
including survey, right of way, buildings, tunnels, bridges, sidings, etc. 
They are intended merely to give a basis for more exact calculations, and 
will require modification to conform to variations in prices of material, 
freight charges, etc. The item of grading is very variable, and the 
lowest figures for this are for easy country, or where steep grades and 
curves are used to avoid expense in grading. 



I. Cost of one mile of track with 1 6 Ib. steel rails. 





Rails at $32 per ton. 


Rails at $37 per ton. 


Rails at $42 per ton. 


25/^nr tons of 16 Ib. steel 
rails 


At $32 - $804.57; At $37 = $930.29 
" 2j^ c . = 44.50! " 2% c. = 48.95 
" 18 " = 64.26 "20 " = 71.40 
" 10 " = 264.00 " 15 " = 396.00 
400.00: = 600.00 


At $42 = $1,056.00 
" 3c. = 53.40 
" 22 " = 78.54 
" 20 " = 528.00 
= 900.00 


1,780 Ib. of 3^ x$6 spikes 
357 splice joints 
2 040 cross ties 


Grading and laying track 


Total per mile 


$1,577.33 


$2,046.64 


$2,615.94 





MEMO. Each $1 per ton variation in the price of 16 Ib. rails will make a difference 
of $25.14 per ton. 



II. Cost of one mile of track with 2O Ib. steel rails. 





Rails at $30 per ton. 


Rails at $35 per ton. 


Rails at $40 per ton. 


31 A 6 A tons of 20 Ib. steel 
rails 


At $30 = $943.29 
"2Mc.= 66.15 
" 20 " = 71.40 
" 10 " = 264.00 
400.00 


At $35 = $1,100.00 
"2%c.= 69.83 
"22 " = 78.54 
" 15 " = 396.00 
= 600.00 


At $40 =$1,257.14 
"2%c.= 77.18 
"24 " = 85.68 
"20 " == 528.00 
= 900.00 


2,940 Ib. of 4x/ B spikes. 
357 splice joints 
2,640 cross ties 
Grading and laying track 


Total per mile. . . 


$1,744.84 


$2,244.37 


$2,848.00 



MEMO. Each $1 per ton variation in the price of 20 Ib. rails will make a difference 
of $31.43 per mile. 



84 



H. K. PORTER & CO., 



III. -Cost of one mile of track with 25 Ib. steel rails. 





Rails at $29 per ton. 


Rails at $34 per ton. 


Rails at $39 per ton. 


39sWo tons of 25 Ib. steel 
rails 


At $29 -$1,139.29 
" 2c. = 70.40 
" 22 " = 78.54 
" 10 " 264.00 
500.00 


At $34 =-$1,335.71 
" 2J4c. = 79.20 
" 24 " - 85.68 
" 20 " = 528.00 
800.00 


At $39 $1,532.14 
" 2}^c. = 88.00 
" 26 " = 92.82 
" 30 " 792.00 
= 1,100.00 


3,520 Ib. of 4xJ^ spikes. . 
357 splice joints 
2,640 cross ties 


Grading and laying track 


Total per mile 


$2,052.23 


$2,828.59 


$3,604.90 





MEMO. Each $1 per ton variation in the price of 25 Ib. rails will make a difference 
of $39.28 per mile. 



IV.-Cost of one mile of track with SO Ib. steel rails. 





Rails at $28 per ton. 


Rails at $33 per ton. 


Rails at $38 per ton. 


47irWtf tons of 30 Ib. steel 
rails 
3,960 Ib. of 4J4x^ spikes. 
357 splice joints 
2,640 cross ties 
Grading and laying track 


At $28 - $1,320.00 
" 2c. - 79.20 
" 24 " -= 85.68 
" 10 " - 264.00 
500.00 


At $33 -$1,555.72 
" 2^c.= ' 89.10 
" 26 " = 92.82 

44 20 " - 528.CO 
- 900.00 


At $38 =$1,791.43 
" 2J^ c. = 99 00 
" 28 " = 99.96 
'30 " = 792.00 
- 1,200.00 




&O O-fG QQ 


<&ft 1 RA 


dtQ OQ.1 Oft 



MEMO. Each $1 per ton variation in the price of 30 Ib. rails will make a difference 
of $47.14 per mile. 



V. Cost of one mile of track with 35 Ib. steel rails. 





Rails at $27 per ton. 


Rails at $32 per ton. 


Rails at $37 per ton. 


55 tons of 35 Ib. steel 
rails 


At $27 =$1,485.00 
" 2c. - 79.20 
" 26 " = 92.82 
" 10 ' = 264.00 
= 600.00 


At $32 = $1,760.00 
" 2^4 c.= 89.10 
"28 " = 99.96 
"25 " = 660.00 
= 1,000.00 


At $37 = $2,035.00 
" 2^c. = 99.00 
"30 " = 107.10 
" 40 " = 1,064.00 
== 1,200.00 


3,960 Ib. of 4^xJ^ spikes 
357 splice joints . . 


2,640 cross ties 
Grading and laying track 


Total oer mile... 


$2.521.02 


$3.609.06 


$4.505.10 



MEMO. Each $1 per ton variation in the price of 35 Ib. rails will make a difference 
of $55 per mile. 



PITTSBURGH, PENNA. 85 



WORKING REPORTS. 

The following record of work done by our locomotives is taken from 
reports furnished by their owners, excepting a few cases where our 
traveling agent has made tests. We take this opportunity of acknowledg- 
ing our indebtedness to our customers who have taken so much trouble 
iu furnishing us with this valuable and unique information. 

These reports are not intended as a list of our locomotives in use, as a 
large proportion of our customers have never had a survey made and are 
unable to give the information. Many of these reports were made ten 
to fifteen years ago, and the conditions of service have been changed 
often meanwhile. In a few cases the same locomotive appears in the 
reports of different owners. 

The average performance, and usually the best work done in regular 
service, is given, and this is generally considerably within the full capacity 
of the locomotive. The regular work is in some reports very much in 
excess of the estimated capacity, and in these cases there may be extra 
favorable conditions for overcoming grades by momentum, or the 
locomotive may be worked harder than usually advisable. In no case 
where a special test has been made with track and cars in good order, 
has any locomotive failed to come up to the estimated capacity. 

These reports are not given as testimonials or recommendations, 
although we have an abundance of these, but our intention in presenting 
them is to give practical information, based on actual facts, instead of on 
theoretical calculations, as to the power, speed, daily mileage, and con- 
sumption of fuel and water of our locomotives ; and as to the grades and 
curves, the gauges of track, weights of rail and efficiency of different 
classes of roads on which light locomotives can be used advantageously. 

We have placed these reports in tabular form, grouping together 
similar locomotives, arranged according to the sizes of cylinders and 
the steepness of the grades. By this arrangement a comparison can be 
made at a glance of the work done under various conditions. While 
these reports are necessarily unscientific, we know of no other record 
of locomotive performances that can be compared with them for 
practical use. 




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Pittsburgh, Pa. 
5) 
>onlron Co 
3) Michigan. 


DastleR.R.&Mim 
New Castle, Pa. 
9) 


ont Nail Works. . 
Wheeling, W. Vt 
6) 


>urgh Steel Castii 
8) 


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Fort Dodge, la. 

8) 


on different trac 

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Pottsville, Pa. 

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South America. 
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Phosphate mines. 
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8) 


a & Mad River R. 
Arcata, Cal. 

2) 


Pinckney, Jr 
Phosphate mines. 
Charleston, S. C. 
9) 


ron & Steel Co. ... 
Cleveland, O. 

8) 


Krosigk&Co 
Sugar Plantation. 
San Domingo. 

8) 


ta Mining & M'f 'g 
Iron mines. 
Tyrone, Pa. 

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ow Bros 
Sugar Plantation, 
to Plata, San Dom 

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WNER AND L 
AND DATE 
REPORT 



Don J. Latimer. 
plantation. 
to Rico. 
Plantation 
Domingo. 



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Fairmont Coal & Iron Co 
Coal mines. 
Fairmount City, Pa. 

(1884) 


Brown & Cochran 
Coke works. 
Broadford, Pa. 

(1888) 

St. Mary's Coal Co....'... 
St. Mary's, Pa. 
(1884) 


Julian Fishburue 
Phosphate mines, S. C 


(1884) 
Mount Carbon Co. (Ltd.) 
Coke works. 
Powellton, W. Va. 

(1888) 


Rose Mining & M'f 'g Co. 
Phosphate mines. 
Charleston, S. C. 


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ATE 
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M. 
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ons. Mining 
Copper min 
Ducktown, Te 



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Fairmount Coal & Iron C 
Coal mines. 
Fairmouut City, Pa. 

(1884) 



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Iron mines. 
(1874) Michigan 

Frank Williams & Co.... 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


(1888) 
Fairchance Furnace 
Iron ore and limestone 
Fairchance, Pa. 


(1881) 
Pittsburgh & Wheel. Coa 
Bridgeport, O. 

(1884) 

Kittle & Co.. contractors 
Keokuk, la. 

(1874) 

W niiii-no-n Nnllinp- Mill f 


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Franklin Iron Works, N. 
(1884) 
Contractors for Reser 
Water Works. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
(1875) 


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REMARKS. 


J2 > ^"3 o 


out 150 miles per day of 22 
ours. Moved 4,280 cubic yards 
xcavated material y% mile 
rom steam shovel to dump, 
eturning vip grade of 7 per 
ent., 500 feet long, with empty 
ars in one day and night of 
2 hours. Seven other locomo- 
ives doing similar work. 


s hauled 4 cars=42 tons. 
}rade 300 feet long. 50 miles, 
urning500 Ibs. coal, and using 
tanks of water daily. 


es the work of 7 mules in about 
alf the time easily. Steepest 
rade 100 feet long. Rises 642 
t. in 2 miles. 




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ightbill & Son 
Quarry, 
Annville, Pa. 


[ining Co 
age Firebrick 
[t. Savage, Md 


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Hill Coal 
onado, W 



t Coal Co 
mond City 



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Has hauled 38 <-ars f 
grade of 44 feet pe 
to (JO miles, burnin 
coal fuel, and using 
water, getting out 
tons coal per day of 


Curve comes on 105 I 
Has hauled 62 car 
Gets out 400 tons coi 


ti 



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Can get out 500 ton 
tanks water daily, 
coal fuel per week. 


Curve at foot of gi 
hauled 10 cars-=23 t 
40 trips, getting out 
tons coal daily. 


Generally hauls less ; 
more. 


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o Coal & Mining Co ... 
Excello, Mo. 

) 


tHall 
St. Marys, Pa. 

) 


aunt Coal & Iron Co. . . 
lirmount City, Pa. 

) 


Kanawha Colliery Co.. 
ml Valley, W. Va. 


ce Colliery 
Pottsville, Pa. 

) 

:man, Jr., & Co 
Latrobe, Pa. 
) 


Brooks & Son 
Nelsonville, Ohio. 

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to 72 miles daily. 


LS 1 muled 23 cars=~34U tons. 
(I to 40 mil j s, burning 800 Ibs. 
oal fuel, and using 4 tanks of 
vater per day of 9hours. 


feet curve comes on 150 feet 
Tftde, 200 feet grade is 3,000 
eet long. Has hauled 60 cars. 
3ars come down loaded with 
,400 Ibs. each. 21 lo:W mil.-s. 
,000 Ibs. coal fuel, l,20u gallons 
vater daily, getting out 450 
ons of coal. 


is hauled 25 cars, or 4G tons. 
15 to 40 miles, 500 Ibs. coal fuel, 
[ tanks water per day. Does 
he work of 20 mules and 10 
Irivers, and could do the work 
)f 30 mules and 15 drivers. 


30 hauls 40 loaded cars HO 
ons up a 78 feet grade. Usual 
vork less. 


ad all underground. 50 miles, 
,000 Ibs. coal fuel daily. 




If 

GO 

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to 65 miles daily. Ran 18 
noiiilis withou' losing a trip. 


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mpton & Miller.. 
Edgerly, La 
884) 


W. Taylor 
Summerville, S 
881) 


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Beaumont, Tex. 


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Fail-child, Wis. 

1884) 

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1884) 
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Edmore, Mich. 

1883) 


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Sternenberg. 
Olive, Texas. 






5 . 

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Some logs hauled are 8 feet di- 
ameter, and will average 4 feet 
diameter scaling K800 1'eet per 
log. Grade 600 feet long Kn- 
gine not used to full capacity, 
and not $5.00 repairs in 12 
months' use. 


On trial hauled 6 loaded cars 
about 90 tons. 80 miles. 1 cord 
wood fuel, 2 tanks water daily. 
No repairs in 12 mouths. 


Have grade of 419 feet per mile, 
Yz mile long, on branch. 


Shifts 10 cars -350 to 400 tons on 
nearly level track. Engine 
burns 4J4 tons bituminous coal 
fuel per month, and uses 2 
tan ks . f water per day. Grade 
900 feet long. 


Could haul twice as much. Puts 
in 40,000 to 50,('00 feet of logs, 
working 3 hours actual time 
Can supply 2 mills, say 90,000 
feet pe-- day, on 5 to 8-mile 
haul. No repairs in 10 months. 
Grade 900 feet long. 


J0g 

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For 6 weeks made an average of 
133,000 feet per day, hauling 15 
cars 4 trips. 


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Buffalo Lumber Co. . . 
Bayard, W. Va. 

(1888) 


Wilson. Kistler&Co... 
(18H8) Rolfe, Pa. 


Thompson & Tucker Lum.Co. 
Trinity, Tex. 

(1888) 


11 

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State Lumber Co ... 
( Id cher. Mich. 
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ater per day 



as slioi-l tfi-a 
mile, (ii-adc a 
together. 42 t 
ing % cord of 
using 2 tanks 
of 10 hours. 



Has hauled 22 cars weighing 172 
tons. 119 to 153 miles, 3 cords 
wood fuel, 8 tanks water per 
day of 11 hours. Usual speed 
18, and best 25 miles per hour. 



2U 
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I N D EX. 

PAGES. 

CATALOGUE OF LOCOMOTIVES AND MOTORS 4 to 45 

COAL MINES, 71 and 72 

COAL ROADS, 70 

COKE OVENS, 72 

CONTRACTORS' TRAMWAYS, 69 

COST OF OPERATING LOCOMOTIVES, 77 

CURVES 53 to 56 

DUPLICATE PARTS, 1 

ESTIMATE OF COST OF RAILROADS, .... 83 and 84 

GRADES, 52 

GAUGE OF TRACK, . . . 58 to 60 

GUARANTY, ........... 2 

HAULING CAPACITY EXPLAINED, 46 

HAULING CAPACITY, TABLES FOR CALCULATING, . . 47, also 50 

LIGHT RAILROADS, 60 

LOGGING RAILROADS, 73 to 75 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION, ....... 82 

MOTORS, 31, 32, and 42 to 45 

MOTOR RAILROADS, 61 to 66 

NARROW GAUGE 59 

PRICES, 2 

PLANTATION RAILROADS, 76 

RAILS, 56 and 57 

SHIFTING, ........... 68 

SPECIAL SERVICE (Mills, Furnaces, Etc.), . . . . 66 to 68 

SPECIFICATIONS, 3 

SPIKES, SPLICES AND CROSS TIES, 80 

SUBURBAN AND STREET RAILWAYS, 61 to 66 

TONS OF RAILS REQUIRED PER MILE, ...... 80 

WEIGHTS OF CARS, 81 

" LOGS, LUMIIEK. ETC., ...... 79 

WOODEN KAILS, ......... 06 and 57 

W i . it K i NG REPORTS OF PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVES, . . . 86 to 91 
NOISELESS STEAM MOTORS, . . 92 to 95 
" FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES, . . . 96 to 101 
" SIX-DRIVER TANK-LOCOMOTIVES, . 102 to 105 
" SHIFTING LOCOMOTIVES, . . 106 to 109 
" SPECIAL SERVICE LOCOMOTIVES. . 110 to 125 
" MINE LOCOMOTIVES, . . . 126 to 131 
" " LOGGING LOCOMOTIVE-. . . 132 to 147 




5201 



LIBRARY USE 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED 

LOAN DEPT. 

THIS BOOK IS DUE BEFORE CLOSING TIME 
ON LAST DATE STAMPED BELOW 




M/lh 4 1QC7 












MAR 1 




L, 'T. 








-[RECEIVED BY 

. 1 

__ 




LD 62A-50m-7,'6. r i 
(F5756slO)9412A 



General Library 

University of California 

Berkeley